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psy450- chapters 23-25 richards.docx

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Chaps 232425 RichardsChapter 23 psychology and the raceIntro Many issues around this one perturbing our culture is the notorious psychology in race and IQ debateRace is not a psychological concept but it is seen as having a psychological dimensionIt is at the cultural level that genetic traits with no essential psychological meaning of their own are given psychological significanceD T Goldberg 1993 argues we should look at it pragmatically since it varies in character over time culture and circumstanceshould be used for any practise which has as its effect intended or unintended the exclusion of a group from full access to the rights responsibilities and opportunities enjoyed by the majorityScientific racism emerged when the evolutionary theory provided an apparently scientific rationale for racial inequality o Physically the human evolutionary process was widely held to have finished and won in Europeans o Civilization was seen as a natural phenom And the pinnacle of developmentEuropean culture superiority seen as natural vs as cultural o Lower races diverse states of arrested development evolutionary dead endso Anthros and biologists were unable to discover clear cut criteria to identify racial groupso Victorian interest in race much devoted to the difference euro races as non whitehistory can be seen as driven by racial competition Psychology and racismPsychologys involvement came from Francis Galton is optimistic to a point that lower races are capable to improve under white guidance o Tried to quantify levels of racial intelligence o Galton was a major player not just a follower of scientific racism but one of its architects Herbert Spencer the Spencer hypothesis the amount of energy allocated to higher functions of reason and will was much greater in whites than in primitives The thoughts on scientific racism were not universal in psych G Le Bon heredity was the most important factor which every race has its soul and the major races are different species VS G S Hall where lower races were not in a state of arrested development but adolescence and would eventually reach maturity Argued that we should respect native cultures and build upon understanding on top of their beliefs and customs unfortunately when translated into practise this became the rationale for segregation separate education for blacks Indians and black disenfranchisementth 20 century saw 2 major events in studying race differences
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