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PSY493 NOV 6.docx

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Adam Keith Anderson

PSY493 NOV 6, 2012 ATTENTION Qualmi – qu question a alternative l logic m method r results and I inferences Intro state ques hypo and alternative Logic before method logic of study – abstract intro the scientific reasoning behind the study Methods specified in methods Results – critical answering the questions, related to the question Inferences – usually discussion, discussion lets review what we found, discussion sci are skeptical, preemptive try to deal with potential critiscm – what the author inferences are, answer to hypothesis Distilling stuff from the paper Last part creative Your opinion, evaluation, many things how respond to article, thoughtful – two pages thought deeply of article. Comm. How delivers on interest or disappointing it falls short, not just critique interested in science what should happen next not reference other papers Recom what can appear, clearly highly this is qualmi, 4 pages, treat as a non expert dumb it down Disorders of dorsal pathway - Double dissociation - Ventral agnosia app and ass - Dissociable behaviours are intact - No object recognition but ask to use something know how to do it - They have some residual understanding not concioulsly but rec as functional value one source of infor able to use things this is what dorsal path is doing for action how interact with the world - Ask app agnosia ask orientation of mail slot, app agnosia not indicate orientation but out in mail slot orient the letter appropiatley - Dorsal - Impaired at interacting with the environment - Recgnize a object without knowing where it is - Brain dissociable functions know what an object Is without able to interact with it - And object ataxia - Dominated in research in eye movements - Vison action towards something is moving eyes and head to localaize self towards it - The double is report draw right orientation but not insert object Attention – bringing it all together, critical understanding how bring all different things together, extracting multiple maps how bring things toegtehr and don’t see these things as separate but as whole oejcts attention is crucuial for that What is attention? - We all know what attention is subjectively - What is it doing for us - How differ related perception and action Next - William james idea - Taking possession – center of consciousness, what consciousness is what attention is - What happens without attention - No attention is their consciousness - One out of many objects - World not present self in piecemeal fashion environment is filled with cluter brain able to selection things not need attention if not for all these things, - Diff attend all things at a time - Implies withdral – idea pay attention, I have so much cash and buy something make choices - Why evo adapt this way, why not unlimited resources - Opp confused dazed scatter brain state - Illusory conjuction – experimental paradigm when divide attention – objects and features become unbound - Features cupled unbound, scatterbraine - Different perception of reality brain not glue this infor toether How important is attention for perception - The gorrilal one, this one is umbrella - Think perception all encompassing so when have something salient, - No attention disappear from conciosness - Unconscious of these things, blind of these things, not attending do not exist for you - You active participant in perception – objects out in the world that project themselves to you - Making choices what to perceive - What happens to the rest of the stuff, does process Selective attention - Sustained attention - Lapses - Difficult do something for three hours - Baggae screeners task sustain attention and overtime missing, eget fatiqued and missing things in plain slight - Cont attend we fatigue we select - Cluttered sensory env - Whats wrong with to much info - Not just resource - Need to attend bring attention to features – to bind them together focus of consciousness - Selecting what conscious of implies to memory as well - Problem brain has to solve - Memory is highly selective we choose what to put into memory, problems with interference - Search problem - Attention slectivltiy not just seeing things but brian as well - Voluntary attention – observer control where attend to – endongenious attention comes from inside - Other is reflexive – stimulus driven - Stimulus happens and exogenous and control outside of brain unattnetional not try attend if loud or bright might grab attention - Billboard or things moving and capture attention take away from task Attention its covert - Landmark - Sounds not so interesting - Overt moves eye around world and where move limit things take in - Move attending that and ignore that form of attention - Independtly of where move eyes, mysterius inner eye in brain moves around - The mental eye is you before move physical eye have spotlight I brain choose - Suggest perceptual free wll - Not just in retina - Millions of things you choose what want to processs - 1894 - Helhotlzt psychophsycs and - Fixation point in dark and brief exposure with spark to see all letters - Only report little bit about this - Keep fixated but mentally move inner eye - Can report whats in corner - All information is there and pick from environment ] - Allows you to move mental spotlight around - Covert looking eyes see not moving but something moving in brain - Movement of some form of neural energy - Works this way - When moves eyes some intertia – is there neural inertia - Mind process something before eyes get there - Preemptive mental eye does seeing tell eye where to move Cocktail party - Where to choose all the time - Jumble of auditory information all singals in ear not hearing everyone focus on one stream of infor and then attention drifts listening someone behind you, move attention around megaphone around goes hear someone else - Problem brain has to solve all things equal releance - Ear not know it all info and choose suppress someone - Friend talking hearing relation bored - Without moving choose what want to listen too - Can tune them out - First experiment - Paradigm – called dichomic listening, presented different streams audotyr infor in both ears, ears get similar info in dichomic that’s what it is - Unclear if choose ear to listen to - Can choose eye look through - Ask can cover ears and choose one without phsycially cover it up - Can attend to ear, select info and not attend to other - Cocktail party effect Limited capacity - Old idea brian limited capacity information system - Relatively limitless - Retina millions receptors - not need atttnetion for all receptiors to work - Sensory inputs from retina past optic nerve condensing info to bottle neck - Visualize terms of water narrows to be funneled - Eye lots then choose something - Choose beyond bottle neck higher levels of analysis and feedback teeling what to attend to - Comes down and infleucen bottleneck - The task helm higher oders sens instruction to move bottle neck to upper left visual corner, infor coming through is from higher order - Much of brain systems have reciprocal connection where to move bottleneck Erly vs late - Inform cog neurosci - How much processed infor not attending to - Early selction nothing comes through - No auditory information coming in - Volume down early you hear nothing - If attention worked later audotry info gets in not content - Cocktail party critical infor gets through - Suggests how early slexction is - If still read content then slection is late - Cutting of sound not hear it - Later no content - But say orgasm attend selection is pretty late, part brain still listening - How early is bottle neck - If shutting down voice early selction close to ear shutting down volume - Late slection info getting thrugh and get perceptual and semantic meaning - Some part still listening - Attnetional slection is late processing meaning Nuerophys of attention - Cocktail party and someone says name and some things break through - Best looked at is at erp event related peotential - Erp is the timing – show when they are happening it is timelocked - Potentials hapenign 20 ms after stimulus is processed - Fmri may inflecunec v1 one but not say when - Done early 70s - Dichotic listening do have ear price and net measuring eeg - And onset of left right ears - Not asking what you perceived measureing brain potential of potential in attended ear and non attended ear - See different in size - If attention working then size should be different - Relatively early inflecucne between 50 and 100 ms - Neural signals arriving in audiotry system are augmented to unattended ear - Visualziugn early bottleneck - Not answer how you do it , early modulating sensory infor - Infor from ear to neural responses in aud cortex in 20ms - Showing early modualtin based on attention - 50 ms seems early but reaches aud cortex in 20 ms - Early slection is looking how much info is processed - 0 – 50 info processes to brain before shut it off - Sig amount of info coming though you then shut off - Slection early but not early enough to make you deaf - Potentials were loclaied aud cortex brainstem still after time aud cortex modulated Spatial allocation - Classic experiment - 70s cognitive revolution think of processing info rather then action - Mental chromotery how long do internal comutations - Measure infleucne of mental spotlight - Posner measure more closely - Cue move attention not eyes detect stimulus flash of light and repodn as quick as possible \ - First second and a second second on where attending or not attending - Mental eye faster if mental eye not there - When targets in valid cues where mental eye was or attention faster then invlaid cue attention wrong place across screen - 70ms see latncy of action potentials - Diffence bc mental spotlight had to be moved - All inside brain eyes not moved any of these trials When do we need - Mental eye is needed to bind features together - Not just speeding up processing - Need attention bind these features together - Conjecution vd feature search - See so quickly not look at with mental eye with first one but have tow ith second one Cortico - Early in visual system - How early attention infleucen sensory infor - If neuranatomists and artechture see how early attention has infleuce - Endogenous we choose where process then set somewhere - If attned to right eye are changing activity of photrecptors - Can eye be infleucned by you, - Intrinsic to eye your retina can learn things - Look at wiring to making commands to what process - Optic nerve to rential ganglo structure to lgn - To approptriate layer - Once synapsing in appr layer goes to pvc - All other things happening in layer all that is from infor coming down from pvc - Top down connection – feedback connection - How move bottle neck around which part of retina you should oprcoess - Infleucen lgn before infor to pvc - Connections not go down to photoreceptors - From pvc at least - Only one synapse away - From synapse to brain is infleuced - Pretty close trunign off on what phto receptors - Perceptions what choose them to be - Process senory info from first synapse choose what is consciousness and what disappears Early - Eit
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