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PSY493 OCT 2.docx

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Adam Keith Anderson

PSY493 OCT 2, 2012 COG PSY - Only as good as experimenter manip and data is - Uses scientific methods and rejects introspection - Assumption that people don’t have privilege info how they process information - Example – motor movement and picking up a pen not know intricit muscle firings – do if have damage need to always think about what muscles to move - Acknokwldge internal states do exists and mental states can be studied - Past can just sit their and think about processing but observing people know this is not the case - Use observable measures and infer mental states - Modulaty – series of module where undergo systematic tranfroamion and sent to other moduels - One stage to the next – Characterizing mental process - Core paradigms is mental chronometry – time takes person respond represents mental mechanism - Same stimuli and change task and by proxy mental processes needed to respond will effect response time Next - See quick response to identical letters and longer for different and ficntion of diffciutly things get slower - At mental processes in serial stages takes longer Serial - Differentiate mental processes in the 60s how brain deriveds infor from working memory - Memory set of letters and presented single and indicate whether in original set – feel instantanteous but subjective response is misleading - And infer prop of cog properties can tobersve - How rxn times affected – in parralal same time then no difference of set size number of objects or present or not - Serial stop take longer and not there look through whole set - Serial ex regardless if already seen it Infer - Serial exhanustive search Mental chro - Similar experiments he came up ideas of mental operations – encode and know what have to search for and make descion if same or difffernt and fucntionaly different mental operations - One will not affect the other – add something to encoding stage – hard or easy to detect – effect encoed stage not effect descion stage - More diffuclut harde – infer addiditive mental processes independent of each other Does functional - How menatal operations occur in the brain - Do different processes map in to different brain regions - Humans complicated - Mt region in red motion before as color - If task functionally independent may not map on to other regions may connected in parralalel or serial – role to contrain cog theories and understand the brain Brain lesion methods - Paul broca and tan - Brain lesion method - Logic ficntion difrupted by lesion to brain region then that brain region is necessary Phineas cgae - Railroad worker back in sept 15 1938 - Place explosives to clear for railroad line - And put sand and tap down and that iron blasted into face damge his brain cant open eye - 25 meters away and harlow military surgeon – Contd - Move job to jon and those who knew him gage no longer gage - Up skull - Reconstruction whent through both hemipheeres - Point have localize brain damge - Inability to cope with employment - Patients similar this area important for reward learning – using emotions to guide behavior - Acquired sociopathy – don’t show aggression thogu Lesion metho - Causes by accidents or removal of tumor - Cancer of skull and brain displaces not glialoma - Trauma – usually messy difficulty to study - Know rrest of brain is intact - Database from Vietnam war - Developmental condiotns result in focal brain damage – amgydala not grow right or last long turn into calcium – patient sm Patient edr - Lazio group - Damge in red and extends medial of frontal loe - Lack of insight in interpespnal relationships - Before happily married and had problem and marry a stripper leave house and lost all of money - Never return to gainful employmrnet - Gambling task – 4 decks of cards decks with high reward high punishment overtime people pick low rewards theses peole pick high rewards - Frontal the medial surface toward the medial – evr name Sm - Calcification but is contristvtive and spreads over time - Not exhibiting fear – took her to haunted house - Profound social problems will not respect personal space and sexual speak More typically middle cerebral artery due to stroke - Wernickes aphasia - Comprhend language and talks in jibbersih - Morot cortex is perseverd Next – - Brocas apasia - Not talk but can understand - Not move right arm Human and non human - Problems - In humans – damage not under control usually from acquired brain damge - Stoke is middle cerebral artery - Emolic stroke - And anterior the insede surface and front rarely receives stroke receives aneurisms more often - Intersitng case are single cases - Non human animal models – go in and dissect parts of the brain can go in surgically use nuerotixic procedures - Knocj out certain types of cells – remove dopamine cells Single double - Single damage in one function perhaps is necceasry for ficntion - Double dmage with one area and someone is opposite - Say brain region do diffent things and things aren’t realted functionally independent - Broca speech production and werknikces impaired comphrension - In practive double dissociation hard to come by - More often partial double dissociation - Where damage to brain area x - Damge to part above eye have deficit to a b c a is c cant do that inference not good function that contracts with that can say that damge this part but damge to other parts not effect this function Why - May that needs fully intact brain - Sometimes intact regardless of brain damage - Prop damage to ffa – inability to recognize faces – talk with person half an hour and recognize leave room wear wig and people think different person - However may due to that faces are difficult to classify, may have trouble classifying more complicated objects – may be global deficit – holistic properties – fasce is face is bc of configuarion not just indi parts Lesion methods - Variability in patients differences in age sex – true in all human subjects - Variability In the region – impssoible - Casuing problem is not lesion but periphery not tell from one case - Solution is group studies control for demographic variables - Can creat lesion overlasp and see where lesions overlap - Frontal lobe due to aneurism - Not many lestion in medial parietal lobe bc two diffent blood supplies so still good More limitations - Whether brain region is critical may that brain region disconnects - Split brain intractable epilepsy severe corpus colossus spereate hemispheres cause specific cognitive impairment – not assum colusum does cog but pathway carries certain information - Resposnibel for communuction between – different parts carry different information - In temperol lobe in broca and wernicke lesion between and have disconnect can talk and complrehend but cant copy you – conduction aphasia Sitiing 2 - Function not of area x but without x - All legs and falling is system dysfunction – can conclude each leg is necessary for proper function of the stool
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