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PSY493 SEPT 25.docx

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Adam Keith Anderson

PSY493 SEPT 25, 2012 Week 3 Dr. Farb 6115 How people thought of talking about the brain over the 200 years How do we make sense of the brain - Center for cognition is relatively new Hint 1 - Long quote of jest of what people were thinking about during the Victorian period - Common principal all sensory organs shared and conduction from such organs – eyes ears nose sensationa and all nervous inputs used cognitive currentcy electrical impulses to the head, then all sensations same but not the same hence 5 senses in muller terms one nerve as pain another shock another mechanical irritation all qualitqavive sensations from common electrical frameworks o something in the skull organizing the information Aggragrte - Progression – all integrated to the brain so whole brain is needed - He would remive parts of the brain and animals would die - So all occupy the same seat - Cutting brain out and see what does and new - Precsion and hygiene in surgical procedures then before - Back in day melon ball any part of the brain and all parts of the brain wouldn’t work Neuron doctrine - Bnasic currency of how process in the brain is the same - Neuron is elemnatry signaling elements in the brain - Famous neuroscientist by cjaal used staining techniques to map neurons - Hartz 1800 proposed this - Steam engine analogy, pushing enough fluid to make it move - Not electircla pulses based ability to detect that neurons existed and trqce the paths of them - Technology around us based use computers as an anolgy - Can beefit from tech anaology - Not fluid - Type of cell is neuron Law of speciif - Even though neurons and common currency in brain specific energy difference in nerural pathways lead to different sensations - Smell in frontal lobe ventral - Cns localization - Aggragete whole range but by logical quant difference must be seeperated somewhaer Birth - Specific function for loclatization - Logic of neuron - Pioneer grandfather of neurology jh Jackson epileptic wife - He would notice she would have tremor and move up and then ful body sezierure - Some ype of organization bc one part to another if one whole then whole body seizing not just parts and layed out in some type of organize - Look for topographic maps specific areas specific function - Homunculus how oarts are mapped on cortex hand to tongues - Specific represeantations not - Evidence strong seizures caused brain dmage left not have labguage but still sear or epithets - Emotion of language in the right like raising their voice the emotional tone and language in left Local - Phrenology - Real thing in 1800s rich noble man named dultz - Pioneer organized parts mayube measure them and still hold them today - No eeg so how access different functions of the brain, swell up and grow if more developed and map out feel bumps on head Contd - Gall not gultx - Look at personality and then bumps on head - Overall isdea was functional specialiatiy different brain regions - Correlation technique but wrong assumption how ti measure More compleeing - Broca patient neurologist tan – only say bam or tan - And understand follow instructions comphrension preserved but produce was disturbed - After die autopsy - Tans - Area known as brocas area – part hole in it completely damaged - Front left in speech production - Wernicked produced speech but nonsense not – grammatically correct but not make sense - Nerve damage was further brack superior temperal suclus - Classical example of functional localization in brain - Much more nuance approach of speec production areas between important - Case examples building eveidnc eof localization Cellular - Aft was to simplistic - Contradicted of loaclaition of speech - Individuals neurons signaling units but functional groups precise function - Consitenlty across indivuuslas Early - Technology advance understanding - Staining techniques – map out parts of the brain - Nissal – staining alachol then some die Next - Stain rough endo plasmic reticulm the - More cells inside then white matter inside bc of axons - Not same cell bodies not have them axonal tracts of neurons - No ribosomes or dna production – long tail signal goes in - Cell bodies on cortical surface or cerebral cortex - Not know why look – but staining figured it out - White matter below – cortex divided up in 6 layers - Nissl – saining based on alachol and adding die but drinkkin was very bad - Practical joke – line beer bottles outside door and say I am drunk but for staining Cyto - Broadman use staining techniques discrimate 52 different areas in humans and other species as well - Use brodman areas today bc use anatomical way of division different parts different function - Map different regions to different functions - Different things do different things - 17 and 18 v1 and v2 primary and secondary - Very subtle - Back to to the fornt – staining obvious but looking anatomical differences and fucniional - Different cells distribution lead to physiology diffecens Brain maps - Different maps - Basic concept more nuance discriptions - Different nerve negeries for different areas of the brain - Vision different regions conver different parts of visions - More abstract things relate to different regions the orbitofrontal cortex more good or bad judgements Specialization - Complicated when map out all the sub regions - Try to map out all the regions - Highly systemic organized fashion across indi - V1 thalamus and to different regions - Progression – very complicated potential to understand Next - Complicated Current - Agree in different pricniplas - Neurons basic signaling unit - Different parts different functional roles - Project preciseregion and effected by experience newborn not same as adults - Mostly universal across humans - Same role same people - Damage leads to reorgazntion to another place but reorganiztin is limited - Severe epilepsy one hemisphere removed still learn language but not same speed not totally normal but by 12 – 13 look normal - Flipside stroke at age 60 and lose language forever - Important - One trivial task depends on multiple parts of the brain working together - Need to produce and comprend language in a normal conversations Gross Cns - Development much mreo complex two levels - Individual developing - Over course of many different species Comparative - Course of evol how brains have evoleved - Platypus much more new - Kangaroo much new and cat more winckles - Dogs bc more social behavior - Dolphin way more complexity - Gaos sulce and gaps sulci Development - Baby vs new born - Overall brain shape - Basic sterucute - Wernikces area on side of fissure – gap of hearing and speaking Triune - Not gradual process - 3 major stages on how brain evolved - Broad categories of animals - Soinal cord central brain stem - Reflexive movements and breathing - Mamlass new layer and extra layer common limbic system for all mamalas - And wrapped around that is the neocortex is the most new - Discrimates higher species from older animals - All have cortex size varies - Adding new layers - Computer metaphor is bad bc throw out old system - Evolutionary advabage for new areas of the brain - Fetus oldest parts develop first Axis Naviagin - Must slice the brain - Horizatnal also knwons as axial section - See differtn parts of the brain Part 2 Additional Division - Cns – brian and spinal cord protect by own barrier keeps out rest of metbalsm bc blood brain barrier - Inside is the cns in the spine and brain - Some drugs have to be injected in cns some easy through the barrier - Not operate in isolation much communicate - To and from from periphera - To brain afferent - From efferent - Inside body oppsiing system sym and para - Symp – arousal of the body - Para – cools out - Opposing forces on organs in body smooth muscle cant control - Para – - Smooth cant control voluantry – lungs control striated parts and smooth cant control pass out can still breath - Heart smooth muscle - Endocrine hormne release store or burn fat in adipose cells - Communicate back and forth to the brain - Whole process is peripheral nervous system still composed of neurons Major divisions - Divide on complexity of function - Most basic spinal cord not cognition - All way up to gap in brain - Gap in neck muscles is where brain stem starts mushy version of spine - Stem the hindbrain pons and medulla - Cerbeleeum - Diancepehplon the big ball - And below hypo - And core brain is cerebral cortex Pns - Input and putput layers - Senstation afferent to dorsal - And motor is efferent to venteral - Columns - Neuroporhection form bo
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