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Adam Keith Anderson

PSY494 NOV 1, 2012 EMOTION AND THE BRAIN What is an emotion? - Emotions drive us don’t know what it is - Not course pointing to parts of the brain and say this does this - Structure to the brain not explanation of emotion - Can look in the brain go beyond introspection - Intro – subjective experience - You have psych contents provides different lens to view emotion brain activity - Brain org useful – brain distinguish between them and curious about brain states - Biased neuranatomy the amygdale - Subcortical structure – amygdaloid complex – own primitive brain brain within your brain - Computations critical for what emotions are - Current status of amygdala – central to what we think emotions are Is there em brain - Emotion not depend on what, affective primacy - Zajonc – informed by neuroscience – distinct computations of strucutures in the brian that do emotions – neurosocience looks for specialized structures - Question – can separate cognition from emotion - Is emotion separate faculty from other cognitive faculties - Or no spate emotion all part of cognition – zajonc says they should be separate - Functionally emotions should be separate of functions of higher level cognitions and parts of brain responsible for them - Ability do math reason are parts brain necessary - Ficntionally independent - Do other animals have emotions - Cats much more abilty to ave emotions then higher order cognitions - Are emotion and cognition functionally independent - Amygdala – could be emotional computer in the brain – specialized hardware does something with emotions and not with other things - Not need amygdala for math or reasining but for other emotional functions - Not do this in literature – bring these perspective together - Amygdale – core appraisal system – very primitive – is it important to me – important for answerting those questions, amygala palying some special role - Appraisals are emotional apprasilas not cog Overview - Int and acquired fear and social fitness – amygdala to deal with social envitornemnt - How interact with other species - And equivlant evidence in humans - Amygdala role in unconscious aspect of emotions The triune brain concept - Suggest three brains in one evo idea not necessary true - Most base structures in brain most common with reptiles - And thes are basal ganglia – rlated to movement control - The reptialiian complex – really old computer - New revsions of computer more functionality and build around doing more functions - Palo – limbic system surrounds – these parts of brain beyond movement is motivation and emtion – I want to move toward something influence the circuit - New part of the brain – change most over evo time and biggest in us is the neocortex - How evo works – build better computer around this – have all this why toss it – looking back years of development - Neocortex – more related to things like reasoning language and math etc - Emotional functions conserved in other animals without neoctorex not need frontal cortex for emotions - Separating emotion and cogntion - Idea is not trendy – evidence neoxrotex modulate limbic system does mean neocrtex necessary for emotion - Limbic system diffent part fo the brain - Neocortex allows you to rimunate think about it all the time - Reason keep activating limbic system even after it has passed The limbic system - Limbic – means surround border borders corpus collusum – identified by maclean - Use of term limbc fallen out of favor – crtitscim all the strcutres – all shown in purple not like that in brain - Argued maclean one thing for emtoin and shown not centrally for emtoin - One was hippocaompus - Memory and episodic memory – say memory really remember certain place certain time and context - Hippo related to memory and spatial navigation but not specific to emotiosn - Not central to hippocampus – emotion involves memory - Limbic system fallen out of favour Emotion - Amygdala overtime increased area of focus – playing number of affective functions - Ontop of hippocampus the amydala perched in depths of the brain - Amydala – meaning almond think brain testicles - Zoom in – not single thing – just bc all in pink not one thing - Not neocortex (6 layer one) - The older cortex not cortex but cluster of gray matter and cluster of sub nuclei - Red line highlight diviosn sitting on hippo - It is oversimplification to talk about amygdala as a single thing - Very difficult to know what they do - Functional imaging – amydala not get good single part deep – near nasal nisuses create artificats hard take mri pics and resolution of imaging to get pic of what nuclei to - And lesion not sinlge lesions - Humans have accidental damage and not selective legion - Group of patients with selective amygdala damage before damage entire temperal lobe - Not know subcortical nuclei in humans Anterior tmeo - Study in 1888 published monkeys subject to anterior tmeperal lobe region - Amyfdala buried in anterior temp lobe - The lesion most anterior of tmepral lobe hippo - Done to mean monkeys and subjective them to psycho surgery and tamed the animals but blunted emotional responses - Not well conroled study but some change - 50 years later syndrome following tmeperal lobe regions – a lot of affect and following same surgery emotional compass change become doscile - Lost of neophobia – all animals fear of new things – people interest in new things but keep distance – for both people and objects - As if not rep threat to animal - Strange syndrome – hyperorality – explore environment with mouth - Altered sexuality – not take away desire of sex but would mount anything - Anything sexual object - Syndrome termed – psychic blindness – think syndrome form – temperal lobe vison happens blindness but psychological blindness - Not know what they are form of agnosia – not distinguish between things want to have sex with - Change objects lose meaning Selevtive - Not particular brain structure a lot of brain strucurtes removed a lot of brain strcuters removed - Further studies done - Study in rats – animals legion is rat the cat has been sedated – renderd cat into comfy couch – rat species specific responses – genetic endomwnt pick up smell of cats - Rats cuddling with cat it is missing amygdala - Normally fearsome have some threat but sees predator as another type of pbject - Rat brain amygdala big compared to neocortex Selective - Rep in rhesus monleys - Baby monkeys - One group given resection – amygalada in monley is quite large and after lesion – chemical electoletic lesions - Brain matter amydala are now holes - Given back to moms to be raised - Control condition - Mock surgery - Baby shaved head and sutures – changed way one is raised - Moms don’t know sham surgery - Moms raising same monley - Not know if amygdala or not - Returned and raised test 6 to 8 months later if moms could tell difference - Measured monkeys to sham - Loss of neophobia – when raised in normal enviroemnt these monkeys when presented novel object – control stay away from it corner of cage looking at it, lesioned goes up and is curious not same threat interepted as phobia disappears - And species specific predators - Rhesus monkeys don’t if snake is surrondoing food - How long go to food - 40 sec plastic snake - Lesioned go in take food lost aversion, dear, affective compass is very different then normal indi Split brain - Amydala in each hemisphere - They do differ in some degree how used created in single animals lesioned so one one eye to intact amygdala and one eye to lesioned one - Animal two brain one ayfla on not - When eye connected to amyfala animals afrain when eye to no amygdala fearless within same animal - Split optic chaism no cross talk - Each hemisphere one eye - Have fearful hemisphere Social fitness - Studied looked at dominance heiracrhies - Dom monleys and then lesion them - And have established heircarchy in lab dom monleys use aggression to get most of resources and found lesion dom males fall down heircarchy and fall to subordinate status - Not clear what it means - Need amygdala to do something – soicla emotional confidence – to have social dom to have capacity - In wild - Have natural heirarch and take dom animals lesion them put back into same cultural and sam thing happens and fall down dom heirac and subordinate and socially rejected and abandon by rest of trop and left to die - Think other animals are treating this animals differently 0 before controlled and behviour changed socially left to die – behavioral not normal and highlights importance of amygdala do in primates but social – so odd not like their species – not understand socially interact with other animals Acquired - Amg book of fears - Genetically brain structure told you all things that are bad for you - Some innate fear of species specific preadtors - Find new ways to fear things - Not know things afraid but mechainsim to learn what is potentially dangerous - Examined is by g=fear cindtionaing and ability to acquire fear response and down to fish and snails and this is evo stragety and able to adapt to environment - Fly mole in air and ass with fearful stimulus learn to avoide Fea conditonin - Much used a lot for amy - Memory system but for fear - Cs tone neutral nothing fear evoking about it - And shock you annoying painful stim and paired - Cs with us painful - Once neutral thing predicts someithng aversive - Tone take on quality of aversion nothing inherent freighently of tone and can learn this fast - Fear con not many trials to learn these things - Us – not condition to fear naturally aversaive - Ur – when heart act in certain way, normally do when faces with something fearful - Cr – what behavior ass with beh - Cr and ur same qualoities same behavior not completely the same Does cs - Animals to fear the tone - Is tone evoking beavorila or state - They are behaving afrain way but is subjective state of fear - Fear pot startle - Prence of cs and afraid of tone then present loud noise and be startled - Not startles lot when not watching horror film - Listening to tone not just behviural but central state Fear cond - Understand fear by understading wiring of brain - Not all these psychological concepts - Amy – two things essential strcuuture in fear conditioning - Use anatomy and fear what brain strcutre resp - What features brain strcutres have - What connected to? - What info need axis to - One thing needs sensory input from cond stim - Connected parts of brain subnuclie
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