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PSY494H1 (22)
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY494H1
Professor
Adam Keith Anderson
Semester
Fall

Description
PSY494 OCT 18, 2012 Lecture 4 Dominant in emotions is far from William james body has nothing to do with emotions, contempary emoption theory cognitive appraisal theory body has nothing to do with emotion, body is altered oin emotions but is nto needed to have emotions Part 4 - Feelings specialaized form of thinking - Thinking not distinct form emotions - Emotions tihtly coupled to the way we think of the world - Talk out of depression then depression has a lot of thinking patters - The cog behviour trditiona - Cognitions are wrong then chage those congitions – catch all word is appraisal (insider terminology) what appraisals are is big quersiotn mark - Schacter singer trad – links jamesian trad of body with cognition – body is being used but need mind to think certain things – body needs activity and think appraisal process and those two things make fear - Emotions are now disembodied – may evo emotion move body in some way may be true in other animals in humans the body is nothing Feeling - One sources of evidence that supports this line of investigation - Dif people dif emotion to same event - James - See a bear – perspective stimulis itself evokes emotion in you – grizzly adams loves bears but same stimulus – how possible from jamesian perspective – we all differ in emotional response to things - Why exciting in and fearful in someone else - Exiciting fact has different thing - Stimulus not emotion or vice versa - Emotion is subjective response – not anatomical assay of stimulus and say this is fear - Nothing frightening of a stimulus – subjective emotional reaction - Something cognitive that goes on - Empowering and depressing – you create emotion – how you think influence you - Make yourself happy or depressed - Done both before – tried to make someone think good about a bad thing - Harness skills and use them for good - Power to change emtoin bc not stimulus alon is cognitive appraisal approach - Idea running from bears – no bear detector in retina and send axon to legs – run bc some appraisal that they are harmful to us - If interesting not run may approach not stimulus something in between – all things james left out the in between process - Cognitive machinery influce what emotion is Challenge - Accounts to why we feel anxiety or not – cog appraisal literature - U of c santa Barbara – psychphysiologist – measure from the body - Is body is sufficient to understand what emoton is or need cognition - Two is threat vs challenge - Build it up – have incredible amount of threat - Threat – resources to achieve something – not study for exam 6 chapters to read and 32 hrs – do – do have resources to succeed – implicitly not have what it takes feel threaten – menatal appraisal – I cannot handle this – from bear to exam – physiological - Thinks cognitive switch – not think about it – do have stuff – implicit mental calculation and threat response – increased cardiac input - Fight or flight – and same time have vasoconstrictions – pump hard and vessels clamp down – bp goes up – hypertension is a killer – short term may be useful to deal with threat – high bp may die young - Heart rate is excerices why not anxiety – the other part is the vasoconstriction - High blood pressure response not like exercise – excersice decrease bp – increase cardiac out put – open vaculator and this is healthy form of exercise - Drop in blood pressure is challenge - Threaten response to challenge response - Challenge idea – take a lot from me and be hard – reframe it – from all to lose to being a challenge – really hard and get better – like excerise improving yourself by challenge physiology - Mentally like exercise – like physoplogical excerise body is repsonsding postivily - Make the cognitive switch - Threts as challenges is under our control – cognition - Know not just physiology – - Create physiology in th body - Submerge hand in water and elicit the threratening response - Contrasts in warm comfortable water – increased cardiac output and vasodilation – - Do they then say threaten or challenge - Answer is no – physiology alone is not enough - Have cognition of threat first then cause physiology - Not start with body and influence thinking - You think fear and fear threat causes bodily changes – this threat is adapative evo Next - Magda Arnold credit for appraisal theory - Books in 60s what emotions are - Basic defin – good or bad appraisal - Good and bad and me – relevenat to me - Some form of thinking process – value to you Sequence - Inverting jameses sequences - Feed to something in brain and make that appraisal and generate the emotion of the threat - That shit cray – generate fear and causes external physiological event – do deal with threat - Without appraisal to self no emotion - Body response as correlate of emotion but not emotion - Hard to study psychological things – trained to study like physics and apply logic to mental events - Emotions very subjective - You urslef not generate same response to same stimulus – like it one day – what accounts for it – self releannce has changed - This embraces this subjectgivity – understand emotions by understadin the appraisal one makes Appraisal - Emotion like catching a ball not try – not think of moving ur arm - Archexture of mechanism – reflexes for u - James – not spend time thinking about – its like reflex – not in spinal cord like regular reflexes but central nervous - Don’t say think fear – conscious is regulate emotions when we are aware of - Intuitive appraisal – results in differential physiolgocial changes - Cannon undiffernt – she thinks it is not causes of emotion but results of - Combination of different approaches - Why we feel something – cant look at pattern of activity – mind cuases body to do something – casuses it to move towards or away Next - If aparaisal is bassis for emotion then reappraise it - Easier said then done - Bias coach for mind - Try urself - Concerted reappraisal may think different way - Body is what emotions are then change the body – for james - For cognivitis change appraisal in the brain - Not know what the appraisal is - Reporter some new theroay and picture amgudala and massage it in brain and decrease anxiety - Not actually massaging amydala – could work bc distracting self from negative thoughts how get to appraisal processes - Like touching button in brain - Not need acess but get to it by thinking about something - Evidence reapraisla actually changes - Shpw picture of someone and look unhealthy in hospital bed in drip and gaunt and about to die and typically sad looking and reaprasie this – they were found in woods and going to die and know with family and are the mend – hospital bc getting well – instead of threat see positive side of things - Demand characteristics – responding how the experimental wnts you to feel – tell them what experiment is about – if reappraise and then ask them how you feel know not good experiment - Multiple evidence that this is not the case – - Subincision fim – into growing – lazerus – magda Arnold is mother lazerus is dad pf appraisal - People in different apraisla conditions – - Standard this is traumatic experience major infection really hurt - 2 other - Intellectualiuation perspective – another codition – detached scientist not judge this culture – cirucmscion is right of passage in north America and not think of it as a bad thing - Buy into the situation – denial perspective – noth have lower autonomitcal arousal - Depending situation diffiernchanges in physiology - Changing how body responds - Body is consequence of appraisal Recent your bring is thinking - Two sources - Potentiate startle - Startle is primitive defeinsive reflex – 1 week old has it – not sophsitcated cortex but developed brain stem - You feel fear – startke reflex is heightened - Test If frighten make a loud nouise – fear startle reflex is low easy to get starteled - Not that nmuch lower level in brain - Think of event change brain stem repsosne to startle - Simple bheviout reponse - Thinking and chamging brain at basic level - Thinking influncce potentiated startle - Reparaise to think event more positive – poternitated startle goes away – brainstem following psucholigcal framing of the event - Valuable bc so primitive – changing way is high level part of brain but infleucning brsain stem – change how brainstem reactd – how you think is high ability to change things - Amydala not know what for – but responsive to emotionalquality of stimulus - Pic of mutilation amygdalla turns on - Stimulus activate amygdale – amydala interprest stimulus - But can reappraise it and amydala repsosne decreases - Appraising changes computations in brain – reapparaisal changes feeling computations in the brain - Cog appraisal sprouted that emotions aren’t things out in world but subjective of indi in particular context - Very psychological – take into account who it is and context - Not same stimulus good for everbidy - Depends on context – jumping out of plane on groun vs in air - Emotions are complicated think about math is not so simpe need to understand indivaudal and situation they are in Next - Cog mot rel - Theories not necessary true - Primary – kind of like do you care – how releant is this to you and well being - Ldowing well on midterm you can have emotion of it – emotional response to grade - If not care – analgesic – not have emotion regarding situation - If care good or bad happen - Secondary – if you fail and care have emotion depends on appraisal – say resources may think your dumb, I feel dumb – way sad is bc you made appraisal – other response the instructor is bad – how does one person feel sad and another feels angry - Make appraisal that he affected goal – have appraisal have distinctive emaotion – may not consciously know these thoughts – after angry then think about it and build up – coping appraisal can built up emotion more angry - If not pass first part not have emotioin - If care then think brilliant - Or humility – give credit to other people - Change from boastful pride to gratitude - Pride and gratitude not same thing Toolbox - His core relational themes – are really like emotions - Say cetain appraisal cuase anger sadness fear - Anger not result of appraisal from anger appraisal but appraisal of being deemened - Don’t feel fear of things that are certain – know something will happen vs might is distinct emotion - Sadness is certain you’ve lost somet
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