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PSY494 OCT 25.docx

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Adam Keith Anderson

PSY494 OCT 25, 2012 SOCIAL CONTRCUTIVISTS – not a perspective he uses in his own research, and difficult to understand, bio perspective is seductive bc easy to understand, point to some part of the brain Emotions as being evolved common biology there are made up as cultural tools, like languiages how to communicate with each rules which we call emotions, emotions specific or rules to particular cultures Darwin and social - Not have to choose between bio or cultural not a cop put no dichotomy of nature vs nurture it is wrong some researchers pick specific camps - Debating teams of opposing personalities evidence shows not incompatible people interested in bio and cultural - Why facial expressions look the way they do, certain config of face not arbitrary signal we decide but as a sensory adaptation - Overtime has become powerful social tool - Origin some other purpose reg phy enviromnet but how facial expression for socal comm. - Combine mutual influence - Not designed for social comm but useful today - Socially retarded bc missing critical component of social comm. - Less evidence more of an idea not filled with data but idea Social contructivism - Highlights importance of cultural and context inconstrucuting view of the world - Reality is physics of the world - Atoms exist but don’t mean anything to what reality is - Rock is what humans agree on it to be - Reality doesn’t exist without social invention - Indi level perception picking up of things in world but construction of mind, not inherent property of matter - Knowledge – how humans interact what we know of the world is what humans agree upon things - Learning – what you learn is social environment – humans deciding what is knowledge and what we should learn - Metaphor Emergent - Esher paining - Able to see thigns that aren’t there - Foreground or background both figures - It is defined by its context, not exist without context - May think of yourself as indi outside of social context - West indiv – I am me I can exist alone and not consider context - I exist only in regard to people who I know - Each cannot exist without other items defines who you r - Emergent properties – - Must study in context only exist within context - Cant take animal out of context and understand biology - What defines it is interactions - Vision figure and ground – everything is fidgure and ground same time - Concepts – cont emergent prop not intrinsic to individual – exist between indi - Feel happiness within argument to understand what they are is space between people - Understand it in response to other people Sentient - Ability by ant or bee – see it as sentient entity also other level of org - Ant on own has complexity but how ants interact much more complex single ant can do - Entire hive as being an enityt – own intelligence - Who ant hive is conscious - Neuron in brain think the entitiy - Is conscious activity single neuron and each neuron conscious - Put elelemts together get collective conscious - Not activity of single neuron - Study coropoartion – study at level of individuals and super structure - Higher units something else - Emotions occur within you but between people – not study in one persons brain - Need lots of people emotions arise form uinteractions with lots of popele - Emotions not be outside of social context - Not within biology of brain Language is thought - Idea is language is thought - Can introspect without some component of speech - Thought is based in language - Can have thoughts without language - Language necessary for thought - Origin is from franz boas anthro us - Perspective ways of life in differ cultures and linguistic categories are different - Language structure not superficial - Difernces cultureal reflective words you use - Sapir later argued language not reflect culture - Make langage reflect culture - Mutual influence – culture way and language but how language comes back and c=influence cultutrral - Whorf – way perceive word is dependent how we talk about it - Differences in concepts in language across cultures how they percievce world - How think of world is contrained language and language difernt then cultures see world in fundamental different ways - Language limits how u perceive thw world Determinism - Uses linguistic relatively - Control thoughts by controlling language - English all words - And newspeak few words - Dictionary in languages expand - Do opp - Why do this - Restrict words - If words critical to thoughts - Delete words not have thoughts - Overtime not know revolution and not have thought of revoltuon not express in thoughts but no way to express - No words for something no way to think of it Contd - Piraha of brazil - Limited number words - 3 words for number 1 2 many and all math problems - 3 symbolic markers for numbers - Does this mean people not think of numbers greater then 2 or 3 - Ability to computational is limited - Not have words not have ways of expressing - Color per - Dani in new guinea - Two color words - Warm or cold - Linguistic relativistic is world grouped into two colors is change how one perceives the world - Answer is no - Retinal physiology - Not have words for it but ask to differentiate can do it - Suggests constrained by pshyiology - Language not constraint how photoreceptors work - Hopi not tense for future – are stuck in present or past - Perspective don’t have words to suggest future time - Ability to think of future is not as differentiated then someone able to talk of future all the time Culture - Culture influences way bio device operate - Diifernt though patterns – think a certain way wire certain way - Fewer words - Brain organized to pick up on objects in the world – answer is not born - Different languages influence brain develops - Simplicity - Deep orthography - Italian h shalloorthagrpahy – direct mapping between letters and sounds - English need to now deep – letters nothing to how pronoucen – mapping is difficult - Influence of how Italians and English - Italians read faster in Italian and understand it - English need to do more computations - Brains Italians reading Italian - Italian greater activation of planum temperale (wernicke) in reading Italian by itlaian - Represents meaning systems in brasin ability to get to meanings – influenced by language u speak not biological but cultureal related to language and how organize the brain - Argument – in Chinese easier to do math – something about language makes ompuatation easier - Had emotions terms not exist in English only feel those in Hungarian Emotions - Emotions are not remnants of evolutionary past - Social cont – construct emotions in present though culture - Using physiology can do it but misleading - Do need subatomic particle phsyics explanation of happiness or higher level of analysis like social happiness only between people - Even of bio perspective social leel analysis is important Dog wagging - Panksepp - Simple nehaviour study of tail wagging in dogs - Question when do dogs wagg its tail and what does it mean - Tail wagging assume good thing positive affect - Is this what dogs do when happy or when signal to you when happy – illicited by social interaction - Put dog alone in room and through shoot gets food – does wag tail if get food it likes - Dogs only wag tails human presence - Happy that you giving it to them – encouraging it to do it more - True for how humans work - Fridlund – facial expressions illciited by social context - No other reason wexcept social context - Only illciited though social context – so see if show expression in private but fridund not goof enough - We are social animals and invisible society around us – never get rid of invisible society Fridlund - When make strike do u smile bc achieved objective - Happiness is acheivemnt of goal – appraisal theory - People don’t smile when make a strike only when turn around – goal make friends happy - Not about knocking don pins but share with other people - Smiles illecited through social context – social com – inter personal not b/w u and pins but between you and other people - Brian smile functional is practical overtime then use it - Give infant toy smile not at toy but at caregiver - If toy makes happy then toywould be at toy but smiles directed to reinforce care takers - Not smile at toy to get more toys but at caregiver - Different smile is reaout of emotions - Smiles are social navigation – social tool early on Averills - Big picture - Arguing opp of eckman who would take bio perspective - Classify for something be giraffe have to have these charaeterics - Defining feature no girafee not have feature - Atoms have to a=have cetain structure – then emotions have defining charactersitcs – defining charateristcs to be fear - Averill not have to - Emotions as syndromes - Standard view wmotions differ in these components - Argues in introspection – not every instance of emotion has defing characersitcs - How have giraffe with short neck - Or sadness without compionets - If bio contrcut repeat and not bio then not have them bc dependent on social - Bio parts not necessaryjust social role - Sad without any defining features of that emotion - Be said without sad face - Funereal feel numb no sadness does that mean not sad – contex determing what you are Fight - Ekman – features must be present boil – nec and suff to be sad - Averill – polythetic – just confusing not simple see tears sadness not defining feature intrinsinc to it - Hard to study bio perspective - may be suff not nec vs - challenge – humans faced ove
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