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Andree Cyr

- Classic work: Darwin WHAT IS AN EMOTION? - Since humans share part of their evolutionary history with other primates as - definition depends on who you ask, and for any psychologist, the definition reflects well as other mammals, the emotions of humans and primates should be the particular interests of the psychologist and his/her's methodological and theoretical predilections and the theoretical traditions and explanatory paradigms similar and these should show some similarities, esp. in function with the emotions of other animals within which they work - Emotions who work in this perspective focus on the motional displays or - also reflects whatever movement happens to be dominating psychology at the time expressions of humans and other animals - most psychologists think of emotion s as being more then feelings Jamesian: based on William James insistence that the experience of emotion is primarily the experience of bodily changes - emotions may also be characterized by expressive reactions such as smiles, frowns, - Emotions=bodily responses or clenched teeth, by physiological reactions of various kinds, such as increases in Cognitive: emphasizes the role of thought in the genesis of emotion and focuses on heart rate or the production of tears, by instrumental and coping behaviour, such as the way emotions follow from the way ind’s appraise events in the env running, seeking comfort from one's mother, or rubbing one's hands together, and - Emotions are based on appraisals by cognitions of various kinds, such as the thought that one has been unjustifiably appraisal refers to the process of judging the oersonal significance for wronged by another person good or ill of an event - most psychologists would agree that subjective experiences, expressive reactions, - Classic work: Arnold physiological reactions, behaviour of various kinds and particular kinds of cognitions social constructivist: emotions are cultural constructions that serve particular social comprise the domain of what they consider to be emotion by they disagree about and individual purposes and they can only be understood by attending to a social which of these components is the most important and which should be used to form a level of analysis definition - Classical work: Averill - rejects many of the assumptions about emotions that’re made, empirically - to a great extent, the way a particular psychologist defines emotion depends on and implicitly, (mostly Jamesian and Darwinian), most notably the what aspect of emotion he/she is attending to and vice versa -->all of the definitions offered over the years by psychologists may be correct for the particular domain of assumption that emotions are primarily biological phenomena emotional phenomena to which they apply -->but each must be recognized as only a  can add a fifth perspective, what Plutchik terms the neurological tradition most of the research in the cognitive and Jamesian traditions in the past partial definition few yrs have drawn upon recent work in neurophysiology and FOUR THEORETICAL TRADITIONS OF RESEARCH ON EMOTION IN neuroanatomy PSYCHOLOGY THEMETHODOLOGY OF EMOTION - the methods one chooses depend on what aspect of emotion one is studying There are 4 general perspectives on how to go about defining, studying, and explaining emotion --> - if one is interested in subjective experience, one typically uses some form of Darwinian; focuses on the function of emotions in the context of evolution by self-report methodology natural selection self-reports of emotion are widely uused in studies in which subjects are - placed in emotion-eliciting situation - Emotions have adaptive functions, are universal studies in which Ss are asked to recall their past emotional experiences electrical activity produced by muscle movememnts) are often u sed as indexes are also examples of the use of self-reports of emotion also used to obtain info about other aspects of emotional experience (ie. Another set of criteria involves behavioural indexes of emotion In trying to ascertain the nature of the appraisals involved in fears of if interested in behaviours such as facial expressions, may directly observe spiders) subjects’ facial expressions under a variety of conditions - studies of emotion employing self-report methodologies assume that ppl are able and willing to tell researchers what the researcher wants to know about their emotions this is a dodgy assumption to make b/c: 1. there is a problem of access to consider ppl may not be able to tell you certain things about their emotions simply b/c they’re things they van’t tell you about as Nisbett and Wilson have argues, however, the assumption that ppl can accurately report on even relatively simple aspects of their recent experience is often unfounded 2. there is also the problem of memory memories, even for salient and important events are fragile 3. willingness problem here is that ppl may be all too willing to describe their experieces for you, even if they haven’t had them and are simply responding to some aspect of the way you are asking them questions about their experience - self-reports need to be scrutinized for their accuracy and their use needs to be justified by the theory they are being used to support - concerns about accuracy of self-reports have motivated many students of emotion to seek out other criteria by which a person’s emotional state may be judged one set of criteria may be found in: psychophysiology: the study of the physiological responses that accompany psychological and behavioural events here, a combination of self-reports and physiological measures such as heart rate, skin conductance (measurement of the electrical activity of the sweat glands in one’s fingers) or electromyographic activity (meaurements of the - In Expression of Emotions, Darwin draws on Bell’s treatise for the detailed CHAPTER 2 SNARLING DOGS, COWERING CATS, AND WEEPING HUMANS descriptions Bell offered for various forms of expression which was intended to give artists with anatomically correct depictions of emotional - for Darwin, emotional displays are part of great continuum in nature, a expressions continuum of emotional expression from animals to humans that reveals the Darwin strongly disagreed with Bell’s claim that muscles used in operation of natural selection on such behaviours emotional expression have been created esp for the expression of emotion - Darwinian tradition in study of emotion is associated most often with the only in humans research of Paul Ekman and Carroll Izard Bell had argued that, ―if we attend to evidence of anatomical investigation, we shall perceive a remarkable diff btwn the provision for DARWIN’S THE EXPRESSION OF THE EMOTIONAS IN MAN AND ANIMALS giving motion to the features in animals and that for bestowing expression - study of emotional expression became for Darwin another area in which he in man could develop his theory of evolution by natural selection Darwin believed that nothing could be further from the truth b/c - Darwin’s reflection on nature and origin of emotional expression grew into according to his theory of evolution, there should exist a continuum of full-length study that surveyed the available knowledge of expression at the emotional expression from animals to humans and the same principles that time, offered a comprehensive evolutionary theory of emotional expression, explain emotional expression in animals should explain emotional and described in detail the facial expressions and bodily movements that expression in humans accompany the major emotions in humans and other animals How did Darwin explain emotional expressions of humans and other animals? - Darwin had good eye for telling observation but was too much credulous in ―actions [that] are of direct or indirect service under certain states of the accepting others’ reports of animal and human emotional behaviour mind, in order to relieve or gratify certain sensations desires, &c.; and - He also subscribed to theory (ass. with Jean Baptiste Lamarck) that whenever the same state of mind is induced, however feebly, there is a behavioural traits acquired during one’s lifetime could be passed on to one’s tendency through the force of habit for the same movements to be offspring performed though they may not be of the least use‖ this idea plays major role in Darwin’s theories about evolution of various Ie. When cat is alarmed, goes in crouched posture, pulled-back ears and bared teeth emotional expressions for Darwin, its pulled-back ears evolved originally to protect the ears from being Darwin’s legacy to study of emotion consists of bitten during fights with others 1. His use of the theory of evolution as framework for understanding the origin contemporary ethologists refer to such actions as ―intention movements‖ for they of emotional expressions signal an animal’s readiness to engage in a more complex pattern of behaviour of 2. General principles of expression that he used to study emotional expressions which the particular movement is a part 3. The method he used to test his ideas about evolution of emotional Thus, the bared-teeth grimace of an animal, used to threaten an opponent, was expression originally a part of the action of actually biting another animal - Those for the Darwinian tradition question validity of general principles of - The facial expression that humans make to express disgust was originally expression Darwin proposed, they’re nevertheless firmly committed to the associated with the action of actually spitting out some unpleasant food notion that emotional expressions must be understood within the context of Darwin called the actions upon which our various emotional expressions evolutionary theory are baed ―serviceable associated habits‖ Darwin, by tracing emotional expressions to their presumed underlying when the cerebro-spinal system is highly excit4ed and nerve-force is action patterns, claimed that emotional expression evolved not for the liberated in excess, it may be expended in intense sensations, active thought, purpose of expressing emotion, but for other purposes it’s only b/c they violent movements, or increased activity of the glands reliably accompany other actions associated with strong emotion that we great pain urges all animals and has urged them during endless consider them ―emotional‖ generations to make the most violent and diversified efforts to in other words, Darwin believed that emotional expressions didn’t evolve escape from the cause of suffering to communicated emotions this has led to the evolution of a variety of vary - Darwin saw that his Principle of serviceable associated Habits didn’t stereotyped expressive reactions in both animals and explain the origins or function of all emotional expressions and he sought to huamsn augment the principle by arguing that according to this notion, the vigorous hand shaking ―Certain states of the mind lead to certain habitual actions, which dance we do after we hit our thumbs is an effort to almost are of service, as under our first principle. Now when a directly literally shake free the cause of our pain opposite state of mind is induced, there’s a strong and involuntary the long string of epothets and invectives we utter after tendency to the performance of movements of a directly opposite hitting our thumbs represent the ―overflow‖ of our nature, though these are of no use, and such movements are in nervous energy into less ―habitual routes‖ or behaviours some cases highly expressive‖ that aren’t directly associated with alleviating pain WHY DO WE WEEP? DARWIN’S ANSWER - Darwin believed that the relationship btwn a particular expression and its Weeping at first glance serves no purpose opposite was purely mechanical and that the two were linked through - Some modern theorists assign a literal cleansing action to tears (tears simple association supposedly allow our bodies to drain off some of the toxic byproductts of ‖as the performance of ordinary movements of an opposite kind, under stress) opposite impulses of the will, has become habitual in us and in the lower Darwin recognized this cleansing function but only in the context of animals, so when actions of one kind have become firmly associated with actually washing foreign debris from the surface of the eye any sensation or emotion, it appears natural tha actions of a directly he notied that infants cry and scream quite violently and tears don’t opposite kind, though of no use, should be unconsciously performed accompany these actions till the infants are around 6-8 months through habit and association, under the influence of a directly opposite he felt the key to weeping lay in its association with screaming sensation or emotion‖ the most basic and hence original function of tears, Darwin decided, was - For Darwin, there remained a number of puzzling expressive bodily to protect the eyes during periods of violent screaming movements that seemed to him to have little functional value that still such behaviour leads to an engaorging of the blood vessels of required an explanation (ie. Cries of pain) the eyes and then to a contraction of the muscles around the eyes to protect his explanation for these forms of expression came fro mnotion that them these both increase the pressure exerted on the eyes by the muscles whever it may be, the energy that’s produced within our NS in response to that surround them various kinds of events in the world at certain times simply ―overflows‖ this increase in pressure then stimulate the lachrymal glands to Showed photos of various expressions and asked them to judge the secrete tears this, the secretion of tears evolved to protect the eyes under expressions they depicted such circumstances in asking group of ppl to perform what’s now called a ―judgment task‖ - Weeping came to be an expression of suffering b/c suffering has long veen Darwin setthe stage for the research carried out today by Paul Ekman, assl. with screaming and other actions that subject the eyes to intense Carrol Izard, and others pressure “ONE HUNDRED RELIABLE PERSONS” - In summary, Darwin explained weeping by reference to his principle of - One of the first to take up Darwin’s methods for the study of facial ―serviceable associated habits‖ expressions of emotion was Antoinette Feleky Darwin saw weeping as byproduct of the intense pressure put on the eyes published paper in which she presented set of photos of a person posing during the sometimes intense exertion associated with screaming and and 86 diff emotional expressions to ―one hundred reliable persons‖ and asked crying out them to judge what emotion was being posed in each photo during such episodes, the release of tears serves to protect eyes Her paper was noteworthy b/c: and its through its association with this earlier that crying has come to be 1. She used photos of facial expressions she herself posed as stimuli this is a associated with suffering and sadness practice in which emotion researchers still engage - Invoking principle of direction action of the NS, he argued that the relief we 2. The variety and breadth of the emotions she posed ranging from joy, disgust sometimes feel after weeping is directly related to the level of activity of our to religious love, breathless interest and hope NS during our suffering one expression was posed to reflect the second line in Gretchen’s speech the more intense our agony, the more intense the effort og our NS and to Faust: ―I feel it, you but spare my ignorance / To shame me, sir, you hence the more relieved we feel when this effort has subsided stoop thus low‖ CATCHING EVOLUTION IN PROGRESS: DARWIN’S METHOD another posed by multiplying 19x19 and 1 photo was taken just after - Darwin held belief that one could obtain a glimpse of the evolutionary Feleky had said the word ―poison‖ in Juliet’s speech from the poison scene history of humankind by studying those who he assumed were living in Romeo and Juliet: ―what if it be a poison, which the friar subtly hath examples or exemplars of earlier stages of human development ministered, to have me dead?‖ these included nonhuman animals (esp primates), the insane and infants 3. Feleky’s results are also of interest - He also sought to make comparisons bwn the emotional expressions of - Even if her procedure for obtaining naturally appearing posed expressions Europeans with those of non-Europeans, esp members of less-developed not reliable (she used her own judgment as to what particular emotional cultures in order to explore similarities in the emotional expressions of expression should look like and blamed Ss if they couldn’t tell what humans regardless of their culture of origin emotion it was) she was able to obtain some agreement as to what her Ss to obtain info on the latter, Darwin distributed a questionnaire on thought some of the expressions were supposed to be emotional expression to a number of missionaries and ―protectors of the - Good at portraying the expressions for disgust, contempt and sneering aborigines‖ - Low agreement for when she asked her Ss to match her expression with also studied photos of the insane and ordinary ppl for info about anatomy emotion terms such as grief, rapture, romantic love, deep penetrating and cross-cultural generality of various expressions thought  These results set the stage for more modern studies of emotional expression - Each photo depicted one male or female adult or child spontaneously or in the face voluntarily making the facial expression for happiness, sadness, anger, Feleky’s mistakes: disgust or fear 1. To include in her list of emotions many terms that shouldn’t be considered - Adults shown 3 diff photos at a time and were read a brief story involving emotions the emotion depicted in one of the photos 2. Using her own judgments about what constituted an adequate expression of - Children shown 2 a particular emotion - Stories were the same DARWINIAN TRADITION IN CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY - In order to be sure that the emotion terms in the stories meant the same Research on emotions in Darwinian tradition is ass. with Paul Ekman and Carroll things to the Fore as they did to the researchers, Ekman and Friesen first Izard had to have 1 person tranaslate emotion terms into Fore’s language and then both interested in demonstrating cross-cultural universality of facial expressions of another to translate them bacj as a check on the original translation emotion as a way of vindicating Darwin’s view of emotion - In order to provide for an unbiased a test as possible, Ekamn and Friesen - Notion that facial expressions of emotion are universal follows directly always paired the correct photo with one that had been incorrectly identified from the assumption that emotions and the expressions that accompany as the correct one in the previous studies, when presenting photos them are evolved phenomena as result of this, their test was biased a bit in the direction of not finding - If emotional expressions are subject to evolution by natural selection, cultursal similarities in the recognition of emotional expressions members of the same sp must exhibit the same emotional expressions Findings: - Darwin defined expression much more broadly than most modern The percentage of Ss whi chose the correct expression was high researchers have done  for all emotion stories, except fear, % of Ss choosing the correct - Ekman and Izard have concerned themselves exclusively to face expression ranged from 64% to 100% with most being in the higher end of - Evd gathered strongly supports the idea that some emotional expressions are the range universal - To show these results were a fluke, they performd this on the most facial expressions for happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, disgust, and ―westernized‖ members of Fore culture and their results were almost anger are correctly identified by ppl from diff cultures identical to those of their less Westenized kin Conclusion: with the exception of fear, they had demonstrated that universal CROSS-CULTURAL STUDIES OF HUMAN FACIAL EXPRESSIONS Eikman and Friesen sought to provide strong test for hypothesis that facial facial expressions for at least some emotions did exist expressions of emotions are universal by finding ppl who had little contact with Why were results for fear so poor? Western culture and then ascertaining if they could correctly identify the emotional - Fear was often confused with surprise displays of Westerners found them at Fore - One would think that fear would be the best ndidate for an emotion with an - The idea was to find ppl who had been, as much as possible, ―visually evolutionary history isolated‖ from Western culture - They argd that this is indeed the case, but among the Fore, events that are Procedure used to test universality hypothesis: likely to elicit fear also tend to be events that are surprising or unexpected - Sample of both adults and kids shown either 2 or 3 photos of facial thus, Fore can make distinction btwn fear and surprise, they typically expressions of emotion don’t b/c in their experience the two are closely linked - Found that ppl from literate cultures could recognize the facial expressions POKER FACES AND SECRET SMILES: THE INFLUENCE OF “DISPLAY of ppl from nonliterate cultures, with the exception of fear and surprise RULES” ON EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION IS THERE A UNIVERSAL FACIAL EXPRESSION FOR ROMANTIC Ekman introduced the term ―display rules‖ to account for ways in which learning can LOVE? mask universal facial expressions of emotion this term serves to draw attention to Romantic love is not one of the emotions Ekman and anyone else has ound to have a patterns of expression ―management‖ that’re part of what one learns when one is universally recognized facial expression ass with it socialized into a particular culture A lot of times in western cultures, we tend to associate with romantic love is a highly thus, by positing the existence of such rules of expression management as adjuncts conventionalized expression that owes more to Hollywood than to evolution; reveals to and modifiers of the set of universal facial expressions, Ekman can explain the extent to which their socialization into Western culture has been successful cultural variability as well as similarity DARWIN WAS RIGHT - Friesen showed a sample of Japanese and a sample of American students Vindication of Darwin’s ideas about universality of facial epxressions of emotion, or either nonemotional travelogue or film of a ―subincision‖ ritual in which rather, of hypothesis about the universality of facial expressions of emotions derived adolescent boys undergo a particularly gruesome form of bodily mutilation from Darwin, is now almost complete faces and physiologies of 2 groups were identitical in their responses to - Ekman and colleagues published results of study with Ss from 10 diff the 2 films both showed cleaer distress while watching it cultures performed a judgment tawsk similar to that used by Ekman and - Responses of 2 groups differed greatly when they were interviewed imm Friesen in New Guinea after all these members of these diff cultures interpreted facial expressions of - Japanese masked their true feelings about film by adopting a neutral emotion depicted in photos in much the same way expression in the presence of a (Japanese) interviwer FACS ABOUT THE FACE: WHAT FACIAL ATHLETES DO FOR A LIVING
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