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Lecture 6

PSY494 LECTURE 6.docx

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Gordon Anderson

PSY494: Lecture 6 Slide 1- 5: This is an overview of the last lecture, touches upon the last few slides of lec 5: - The reason behind collectivism and individualism: - Even in sports teams, it is usually the individual players that are famous and loved by the pubic - Self referencing changes the emotions of people, depending on the situation. Ie. Americans vs. Japanese: Americans: - experience anger frequently - this anger is usually focused on people who are relatives ( close in relation) and liked Japan: - Inappropriate to express anger towards family members and close relatives - The “self” is inclusive, it includes all people and not just themselves - everyone is the same entity What is Happiness? - Happiness is a cultural construct - In western society, people are considered independent - positive emotions create high energy arousal - positive emotions produce activity= high adrenaline - In non western society, people are considered interdependent - Positive emotions create calm elated arousal - calm vs. excited: - low vs. high arousal - social vs. self centered Jealousy: -Independent: People in this situation don’t want to share their spouse or significant other with other people - monogamy society -Interdependent: A collectivist culture is less monogamous - less sexual jealousy - But they are jealous of sexual relations outside the “group” ( for example, people not from the same tribe) Ifaluk culture: There is little jealousy in this culture and even little fear of rape Gender Differences in Emotions: - women are not technically more emotional - It’s the kind of emotions that differ in expression - The woman gender is more collective= the think more about relationships - men are more individualistic - In certain cultures, these are what has been transmitted and inherited - they are trained to have and maintain a social role Emotion and the brain: - culturist perspective: they think that no one can anything from studying the brain - the brain part that is most associated with emotional functions is the amygdala -if emotions are distinct from other cognitions, then we should know which parts of the brain control emotions and cognition - higher level thoughts influence higher level cognition Thesis for the idea of linking Emotions and The Brain: - “The amygdala is your emotional computer” Slide #6: The triune Brain: ( Diagram) A) Simplest organisms: (reptiles) - contain just motor systems - most basic - reptilian complex ( this is the most central and oldest part of the brain) B) Limbic System: - Surrounding ( around reptilian complex) - it is the evolutionary conservative in mammals - what we think affects emotions are in this part of the brain - reptiles don’t have this part of the brain C) Neocortex: - greater expansion of the amygdala in mammals - animals other than mammals have larger cortex - so if the limbic system is meant for emotions then that would mean other animals would have emotions too - this is unless the neocortex has something to do with emotions specifically - limbic system: this part is the bridge for thinking of self concerns Slide#7: - not all structures in the limbic system are concerned with emotions - ie. Hippocampus: self referential memory - central for mental thought of future and for self memories ( to recollect) - deals with moments in time - this represents the self - Problems with the limbic system concept: - contains parts not concerning with emotion - doesn’t contain parts concerning emotion Slide#8: - the cortex is defined by layers - amygdala: is a cluster of parts Slide # 8: - Schafer: He performed anterior temporal lobe lesions in monkeys -this produced rendering of fierce monkeys into tamed monkeys Slide #9: - lesions produced a change from fierce to tamed monkeys: -this created a loss of neophobia ( the fear of new things) - they were not afraid to approach new things once they had lesions -They had hyperality : tendency to stick anything in their mouth -Altered sexuality: “mounts” everything - “psychic blindness” seeing things, but lost emotional thought related to them Slide #10: - take away amygdala in a rat, it will snuggle with a cat Slide#11: - In rhesus monkeys: - took baby away from mom within the first two weeks of life - baby had lesions at 2 weeks - they then returned them to the mothers, and the mothers reared them -after 6 to 8 months: - amygdala lesions: loss of neophobia -When researchers put food in cage= both control and lesioned monkeys took food - put food with a plastic snake around it, monkeys without an amygdala took the food Slide#12: - performed split brain, which is severing the chiasm that connects both hemispheres - right eye goes to right hemisphere and vice versa - it became independent hemispheres -they put an eye patch on one eye, when they saw through the eye with only the amgydala, they were fearful - the eye that does not contain the amgydala, when only looking
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