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PSY494 OCT 4.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Adam Keith Anderson

PSY494 OCT 4, 2012 William james – important thinker in psych, he is a theorist not an empitracl researchers border of psych and philosophy, mainly interested in conciusness – view of emotion is inlfuneced how he thinks of consciousness What his question was his supposed motivation The question - We feel emotion, we know what emotions are - How do we know emotions exist, such mental contructs exist? - We just feel it. - Reason is bc we feel it and therefore exists as a disnticnt mental construct - Some say facial expressions some say physiology - But how we know emotions exist by feeling - James thought conscious experience of emotion is feelings - What is conscious experience of emotion Embodied - Abstarcy question to answer - What emotional experience is he claimed – it was representation of bodily changes - We feel fear etc whatever want to lable it is combination of represenatations of bodily sensations - 3 componesnts - Direct perception then bodily change as a consequence and then emotional experience - Everyone of 3 components is vague and unexplained - Direct perception – perceive objects perceived colour shape and abstract info of its emotional value - We see bear we run we scream and condequntly we fear we experience fear - We feel fear bc of sneation of bodily changes - And true for positive emotions - This argument isnto trivial Argument - Notice William james interested in what consttieues conscious experience of emotion - Focused on emotional experience - Second things is he suggested formulate common sense view – we see bear feel fear and condequntly bodily response - And this fear causes bodily changes - How people think of emotion - Implicit assumumption explicit – see alt view james suggested Prediction - Move head everytime they feel fear – first prediction that if prevent movement of the face or head and stop it fear would stop – if fear is sneation of moving the head the stop then not feel fear - Second prediction – take face and artificaly move it feel fear - Experience of emotion is only the rep of bodily sensations - Another assumption – bodily changes come before experience – move head is before feeling fear - Fourth pred – information from body is enough to distinct the experience of emotion that we have – not one emotion – diff bodily changes cause different emotions – diff phys activity ass distinctky between emotions we ave - Essenitla to feelings is bodily motions - Machine wont feel at some point unless some rep of bodily changes James v slang - Two researchers same time similar ideas - Differ treat bodily changes - Best definition – body is different from cns - We mean by body is everything but spinal cord or brain or William james and lang held - James was indefined of what bodily changes were therefore more difficult to test but more reisitnet to critique - Lang when he spoke of bodily changes about changes blood flow Unobservable - Identify phys or bodily changes ass with emotion - And examine predictions - Different type of bodily responses - First Is facial expression part of larger family of overt expressions like posture - Also bodily changes not accesbile to experience – reg by ans - Two types of activiation – internal not overt and overt behavior - Historically examination of theory of emotion exmanined to physiological changes internal or not overt main system involved is ans - Ans from central to periphery most fibers are efrrent go from cns to periphery some related to somatic the inervate muscles. Afferent provide feedback Sym - Ans divided to pns and sns - Parasym conservation of enery - Sym fight or flight responses Darwin - When measure heart rate – first see decrease of heart rate first 3 sec - Phys response is not as distinct - Darwin and james complimtry way o thinking - With Darwin phsy chages were preparing the body for action – thought about this of ans and all bodily changes as preparing the body for action – predisposition of action - James thought as them as rep of conscious experience of emotion James - Reflexes as a metahphor - No need to control it – just happens - Illicited by external stimuli like spinal cord reflexes - So many assumptions have to be examined – assumptions emotions are automatic is very strong assumption – define what is automatic - Assumption of direct perception - Assumption that all animals have emotions Emotional reg - James took his idea further when lecturing at Harvard - All have to do is act as happy to be happy – not try to change things that cause u to be unhappy - Mimick what body changes when happy u will be happy - Strong specific these assumpstions - Problem not good acting in how we feel - Don’t know wat bodily changes occur during specific emotion Cannons - William james changes changes you can feel - Lange specific on blood changes - And scientific communitytook one step forward make general claim all bodily changes correlated with emotion - Cannon critical of james one of his students at Harvard - He tried to raise difficulties - James predict wont feel if prevent - Detcach ans still have emotion - James talked about experience not behavior - Other response bodily changes have to remove all bodily changes - Vagueness fo bodily changes resuced him - Another critique – very similar visceral changes occur in diffent emotional states - Dif patterns bodily changes ass with - Inject wit adrlenine – 30 percent felt emotion but 70 percent not feel emotion but things they felt - Intersetiling finding of maranon – found group of 30 that felt emotion had negative thought of close people who died - James lange wanted us to illicit emotion by mimick body - If inject andernline mimick - Overall did nto feel emotion so did not go to jame lange theory Cannon - Focus on brain - Source of ans partly true - Thought something in brain cuases body to respond - He thought emotion in cns and goes down to periphery - Cannon in behavioral terms and james in emotional experience Evidence - Support james lange thory - 3 test to james predicits - First is change phsy change emotion - Second whether demonstrating ans differntian is possible – to diff between bodily states between diff emotion - And three get rid of bodily feedback – complete removal of visveral to cns Differntion - Specifity – test not done by james – all labs can do this experiment now - Can bodily response dicrimate intensity and types of emotions The lab of horrors - Paricpant enter a lab and connect to shock generator device - Shocker not issue here - Issu is middle of experiment has spark and smoke and that it is dangerous and to relax - Debriefing – what ax wanted to know what excalty what he felt - First manipuaktion – mainp of fear - In same participant – polygraph was verbally abusive for 5 min - Those manipulations were strong - He found fear and anger differnrtiaed on many visveral response and glavin skin response - Finding support cannon or not support cannon answer no Further - Come from ekman - Guy with facial expressions - Took actors asked them to relive some emotional experience and 4 authors of the paper – never happen today
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