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PSY494 SEPT 27.docx

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Adam Keith Anderson

PSY494 SEPT 27, 2012 LECTURE 2 Picture of poo and asked who makes a crinkle of the nose the disgust expression in response to this, but look what you just saw don’t look disgust – consider why and how some things produce emotions and similar things produce different emotions – why does any stimuklus produce any emotional response Part 1: Evo tradition Darwin’s - Why do we smile from etc - How does it relate to any stimulus Charles bell - Response do what he did Lack of universality - People have basic emotions - Continuity of ancestors and us - Respond to stimuli adapted to us - Not just a social signal but hold adapted value for us as well Basics - 135 undergrads - Sort emotions into categories to similarity of each other - 6 main emotions and subordinate categories - All fit under umbrella emotions - Review qs - Look for exam - Action tendencies – basic idea - expression of emotion not just an arbitrary signal act in certain way to stimulus that illicit emotions – attempt to appear larger intends to anticipate its going to have to bite something – tendency towards actions –pulling back of ears is action – whole display is action tendency - Animal tendency to act in certain way to stimulus eliciting emotion and is display of action - Expressing emotion responding to thing which illicit behaviors make up actions as if facing the threat Why do facial expressions appear as they do? Facial semiotics - Concept on language by Saussure - Language system of signs express ideas - Semiotic studies signs in society - Signs attached to concepts or words – concept of tree and sign for tree is tree signified by the signifier - View of scientist – arbitrariness of the sign – word tells nothing of what tree look like - Context of emotion are they arbitrary Expression structure - Build scale model - Buid nerula network to identify emotions - If constrict neural model – in humans seperates through out space – shows judgement is anger and another – cluster together good how good the recognition model is - Machine can do so as well – and machine can do so as Next - Smile as happy - The expression contributes to your feeling of being happy smile makes you happy - When stretch muscle in this way alter blood flow in arteries that blood to brain stays longer or cools it there is phys response to smile that changes how you feel - Illicit positive affect - Not smiling bc happy but happy b cur smiling - Idea of William james – emotion constituted by physiology of the body Paed - Fear face - Big part of emotional expression – is that it is adaptive either changes sensory load or social context someone helps you - Close to baby face then to angry face - Lifting brow – elicit parenting instincts from people around you - Rather than anger that may look threatening look like you need help Our tests - Idea that emotions mediate sensory input from environment - Sensory interactions clustered on you face – so emotional expression alter how much sensory information you get in from the world like not taking in noxious fumes or look at it - Close eyes, close nasal cavity - In fear want to take in all info you can what to do know - want extra sensory information - Reinforces fact that this is not arbitrary – Darwin’s expression - Idea not just expression by ass similar habits – similarities accounted for by facial expression adaptive from evol – - Antithesis – completely different emotions look different for receiver Evidence - Antifaces - Left to right complet opposite – disgust and fear - Disgust don’t want to be near it displeasing sensory interaction– in fear get more information - Not real face take disgust and inverse it - Anger faces – not gather more information want to fight or attack – angry faces not opening eyes up t gather information but look like disgust face - Second done same as top - Happy is exploration – but face not look exactly like happy face but in forced choice choose happiness - Explain some data but not all data Antithesis - Color wheel - Color perception - Red different from blue green and asking opp gets neutral - Emotion look very different will cancer each other out bc they are opposites Next - Focus black dot in middle of bird - U see an afterimage of opposing colors - Primed with one thing is opposite thing Antithesis cancelation - Add disgust and fear add up looks like neutral face Antifaces - Mathematical inversions - Invert fear get disgust - Darwin came up with antitheses and here test these things Opponency - Antiface of disgust and least likely to say disgust face and most likely say fear face - Same with antifear face Adaptation - Stare at face for 10 seconds and briefly show face after - And write down face - Looks happy and then neutral face get opposite - Then shows another face and then another to see what second looks like - Next sad face then another Next - Saw happy then neutral and perceived as sad - All tests were neutral Expression after image - Prime any face and prime would see whatever would be opposite to what was shown - Sig proportion see sad face But why these - Not arbitrary relationships - Emotions look a certain way bc adapted function to them - Not arbitrary but why - One is adapted but why Principals - How disgust and feara re different from each other - Expression ass with preparation for ass actions - Disgust response is ew threat of contamination not threatening in that it is fear but olfactory what inject and incorporate into body it is a gustatory respons e - Disgust response to oral and olfactory system - Morally deject something also report disgust response - Fear is different – fear for something just to oneself – just themselves not their children - Associated with vigilance – more vigilant to potential threats – evo origins of emotion like fear what we are afraid of in the world - How many look at cars and see fear - Most real phobias are just scared of things – spiders or cockroaches or snakes – study in Chicago asked chidleren wh
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