October 11, 12
- berchard of worms – on midterm
- 3X5 index card – double sided – hand write or print on
- must write name on card – hand in index card
- write clearly
- graded on thoroughness – quotes, phrases, kiekerfer, burchard,
etc… how much you use the course materials – as many examples
as possible – more u give the higher the mark.
- What has been happening during and before the assigned text
- Superstition (In Historical Context)
- Beliefs are personal – not for the public sphere
- Beliefs are an absolute right to every person.
- People have duties to perform – to their rulers, religion, family, etc..
– they were determined by class and kinship.
- Medieval sense of rights linked with duties – people have rights to
fulfill their duties.
- Religious beliefs were not rights but a duty instituted by G-d
- The duty of the church to G-d – to promulgate correct belief and
correct forms of worship
- The church – representing G-d’s law on earth.
- Condition – harm – if someone else’s beliefs caused harm then it is
necessary or ok to correct those beliefs.
- Concern with harm or danger
- The person who corrects should be someone in authority
- ^”superior knowledge”
- the term superstition has a much stronger meaning in medieval
times than it does today.
- Superstition is a Latin term – ancient roman culture – superstitio
- ^Was a label applied to beliefs and rituals that were not part of
Roman religio (religion). Romans considered these things to be
attributed to places like Egypt, Gaul, or the Christians. Applying
these terms to anything outside of Rome (“foreign”).
- Cult – used by historians – a set of beliefs and ritual practices.
- They aren’t Roman and not doing religion in the “right” way.
- People thought that if you didn’t believe in the Roman religion then
they could be trying to harm someone, defraud someone, etc…
- In the Roman/Latin context superstitio is the exact opposite of
proper religio – proper religion is safe, the latter is not.
- Pietas – superstitio was seen as a danger to piety - the proper
attitude of respect towards and worship of the gods. On which the
success of the Roman state relied on.
- This view of superstitio were believed by the elites and the higher
powers. - Augustine – quoting Cicero and Cato – wrote on superstitio (how its
bad) (400 years before Augustine came along).
- When C and C were alive they were high up part of the Roman
- Later when A comes along it has an Emperor
- A adopted attitudes towards what is proper religion and what is not
- C&C wrote this before Christianity.
- Augustine deeply influenced medieval idea about witchcraft and
- Because they are inherited by ancient Rome we then – knowing
that why superstitio has a more dangerous meaning than it does for
- Some elites classify superstitio as improper use of a holy object.
- Action and Idea
- Russell identified 4 sources for the formation of witchcraft:
- 1) Sorcery
- 2) Pagan religion
- 3) Folklore
- 4) And Christian heresy (Christian ideas about heresy)
- Focusing on Christian Heresy
- Emerging pattern where sorcery and magic are becoming
systematized and standardized.
- As well the 8 elements of the myth of witchcraft – stereotype –
which emerges in the 15thC.
- 1) Night Ride – women go out riding with the goddess Diana
- 2) Pact with the Devil – equated with idolatry (14thC)
- 3) Formal repudiation of Christianity – apostasy
- 4) Secret nocturnal meeting
- 5) Desecration of the Eucharist and Crucifix – misuse of holy
- 6) Orgies
- 7) Sacrificial infanticide