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October 25.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Sol Goldberg

October 25, 12 - Venereal delectation – Sexual delight/pleasure - Ven coming from Venus - ^^attached to witches (women) having sex with Satan - Russel talked about 4 main beliefs - From the 12 C onward we see an increasing fear of the devil among the Christian theologians – the devil is becoming more active in human affairs and more violent against human beings. – An intellectual tradition which focuses academic inquiry on the devil. – becoming a more regular topic. - Rising among learned elites (clerical elites). - These fears and concerns about the devil were not very predominant among the lay-people. - Looked at accusations against neighbors - The accusations of inquisitors – construct of the pact – infanticide, cannibalism. - Accusations from laypeople – he killed my cow, made my neighbor sick, etc… - Different social classes have different beliefs - Being produced by people whose job it was to hunt heretics. - “a gradual transformation from sorcery to heresy to diabolical witchcraft” - Transforming ordinary sorcery to diabolical witchcraft - Pact and the collaborative notion of heretics. th - A pope (Gregory the 9 )asserted that secular rulers would have to help point out people who are heretics or witches – outlawing heresy spreads to the public laws - The church can take away people’s property - Papacy claiming the job of inquisitor – opens up its own office of inquisition – hand-picked inquisitors. - Introducing the death penalty to witches/heretics - John 22 nd– Sorcery is now being defined as making pact with demons and it is heresy. - End of 14thC – Performing a ritual becomes an act of terrible danger and violence which places the whole community at risk fro the devil. - Problem before the 12thC - At the end of the 15thC – the stage for the witch crazes for the next 2 C’s have been set - We have a clearly defined crime and criminal and we have all of the institutional apparatus to deal with the crime. - Malleus Malefecarum – intended to be read by secular magistrates and papal inquisitors. – to discover how to punish and find out who witches are. (manual by inquisitors) - Authors of the Malleus are 2 Dominican monks – Jacob Springer and Henry Kramer - Received an authorization by Pope Innocent 8 th– to spread these beliefs to German regions - Summis Desiderantes – published as part of the Malleus - Issue of jurisdiction - They were told that they could not interfere with the laws of the land then the local authorities would intervene. - A strong clue that there were clerical and civil officials who did not share the same ideas that Kramer and Springer compelled - The Malleus has 3 major sections - 1) Ques
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