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November 8.docx

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Sol Goldberg

November 8, 12 - Stereotypes which put women outside of social norms: - Isolated women, single, old, uneducated women, deprived women, - Historical stereotypes of people who would be involved in witchcraft: - Promiscuous women (Malleus), - Increasing fear of Satan and demons - There’s a perception that increasing numbers of people are being involved with demons - Late 15thC – Saw for the first time an explicit association between witchcraft and women – why are more women attracted to superstition? And why are more women involved in superstition? - More trial material and specifically seeing more trial material related to women. - Why are more women accused of witchcraft – why do women confess to witchcraft charges? - Before the 15thC – the stereotype of persons involved with diabolical activities – a man (certain type – a male cleric). - By the end of the 15thC we get the Malleus. - Salem witch trials – 1692 (British colony of Massachusetts) - Agree on 2 things - 1) in the mid 1400’s that all pre-existing elements have coalesced into a coherent narrative of evil. - 2) In the mid 1400’s we start to see a noticeable rise in witchcraft trials. – involve charges of pacts with the devil and heresy. - In the years between 1300-30 – average of 1 trial per year – France - 2/3 of all the trials involve prominent ecclesiastical leaders – victims of sorcerers or accused of sorcery (K calls them political trials). - 1) Charges that involve invoking demons and diabolism were infrequent - 2) No more political trials 1330-75 – instead common-folk make up the majority of the accused – Germany and France – Sorcery (Diabolism infrequent) - 3) 1375 – 1435 – 2 changes occur – the number of trials increases – while sorcery is still the dominant charge there are charges of invoking spirits and diabolism. - The first 3 are concerned with sorcery - 4) 1435-1500 – Charges of diabolism are more frequent and elaborate - - Russel – the most intense point in the witch trials are between 1560 and 1660 - In a recent study a scholar has pointed out that 110,000 people were tried for witchcraft - 40 – 60,000 people in that period of time were executed - 50 – 70,000 people were not executed - ^perhaps they found that the evidence wasn’t sufficient, the judges, etc… - stereotypes of the people being executed - Gender – For every one man who was accused there were 4 women accused - Out of the total number of women accused the majority of them fit into poor, elderly, or single, but also rich women. - France – Overall – more men were accused than women, however of the total accused women the majority of those were elderly and single. - Finland – In the 16thC – 60% of people accused were men – out of t
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