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Lecture 6

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Lecture 6 Topics: • Indian philosophy and inter-religions debate • Mimamsa, Vedanta, nyaya • Proof for the existence of God Indian philosophy and inter-religious debate Common ground for debates • Debates focused on epistemology as well as metaphysics and soteriology (Terms in philosophy) Epistemology: how does one know Metaphysics: your core principles Soteriology: ultimate end/heaven • Shared understanding of rationality • Dialectical form of argumentation involving the views of the opponent and one’s own views Dialectical form: texts build on debates, not a sole personal opinion Means of valid knowledge • Perception • Inference – critical for the proof of existence of god Eg:  All men are mortal. Samir is a man, therefore samir is mortal.  I see smoke on hill, whenever there is smoke there is fire, example of the kitchen, therefore the hill has fire. • Presumption: (negative inference) • Verbal testimony This world begins with rationality and reasoning. One person should be able to convince the other. Philosophy and liberation? Moksa: liberation, re-birth. *vedic people: don’t believe in moksa Mimamsa, Vedanta, Nyaya Sanskrit, pre-Islamic texts. Mimamsa: (Atheist) – focused on vedic traditions specifically sacrifice • Vedic apologetics (when vedic sacrifice wasn’t important, they defended it and the importance of it, they wanted to hold on to it. They had a rational position) • Knowledge of correct action in accord with dharma • Rational reflection on sacrifice (don’t believe in gods) • No belief in god *perform sacrifice to have a son or go to heaven but there is no god Vedanta (“end of Veda”) *Upanishads* • Theism • Focused on metaphysics • Relationship between universal spirit (Brahman) and individual soul (atman) • Interpretation of bhagavad gita, upanisads, brahma sutras. *Buddhists = don’t believe in gods Nyaya • School of logic, rational argumentation • Buddhism and external objects • Realism (developed proof for existence of god, interested in inference) • Argued with Buddhists *talk about the logic/inference with Buddhists, everything turns out to be against the buddhists. They proved that there is god on based on inference. Nyaya and Saivism? • Buddhists believe in “momentaries” = from moment to moment, everything changes, things don’t remain the same. Nyaya proof for the existence of God 1. Cosmo
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