• Indian philosophy and inter-religions debate
• Mimamsa, Vedanta, nyaya
• Proof for the existence of God
Indian philosophy and inter-religious debate
Common ground for debates
• Debates focused on epistemology as well as metaphysics and
(Terms in philosophy)
Epistemology: how does one know
Metaphysics: your core principles
Soteriology: ultimate end/heaven
• Shared understanding of rationality
• Dialectical form of argumentation involving the views of the
opponent and one’s own views
Dialectical form: texts build on debates, not a sole personal opinion
Means of valid knowledge
• Inference – critical for the proof of existence of god
All men are mortal. Samir is a man, therefore samir is mortal.
I see smoke on hill, whenever there is smoke there is fire,
example of the kitchen, therefore the hill has fire.
• Presumption: (negative inference)
• Verbal testimony
This world begins with rationality and reasoning. One person should be
able to convince the other.
Philosophy and liberation?
Moksa: liberation, re-birth.
*vedic people: don’t believe in moksa Mimamsa, Vedanta, Nyaya
Sanskrit, pre-Islamic texts.
Mimamsa: (Atheist) – focused on vedic traditions specifically sacrifice
• Vedic apologetics (when vedic sacrifice wasn’t important, they
defended it and the importance of it, they wanted to hold on to
it. They had a rational position)
• Knowledge of correct action in accord with dharma
• Rational reflection on sacrifice (don’t believe in gods)
• No belief in god
*perform sacrifice to have a son or go to heaven but there is no god
Vedanta (“end of Veda”) *Upanishads*
• Focused on metaphysics
• Relationship between universal spirit (Brahman) and individual
• Interpretation of bhagavad gita, upanisads, brahma sutras.
*Buddhists = don’t believe in gods
• School of logic, rational argumentation
• Buddhism and external objects
• Realism (developed proof for existence of god, interested in
• Argued with Buddhists
*talk about the logic/inference with Buddhists, everything turns out to
be against the buddhists. They proved that there is god on based on
Nyaya and Saivism?
• Buddhists believe in “momentaries” = from moment to moment,
everything changes, things don’t remain the same.
Nyaya proof for the existence of God