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Lecture 20

Judaism terms from text and lecture 2011-2012

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University of Toronto St. George
Arti Dhand

Judaism Biblical Judaism the study of Judaism in the bible Rabbinical Judaism the study of Judaism through rabbiceremonial ritual The first period of the development of the Judaism Common Era marks the evolution of rabbinical Judaism and traditional Jewish life from about 100 CE to approx 1800 CE the beginning the modern period A movement called REFORM questioned and modernized traditional Judaism and helped produce the diverse branches within Judaism that exist today began in Judaism as a response to 1 The new thinking of the European Enlightenment2 The liberal thought of the American and French Revolutions 3 The laws of Napoleon raised the issue of Jewish identity HEBREW BIBLE y Not a history book o Called sacred history book y Its role in the development of Judaism over the past two thousand years y When the ceremonial religion of the Jerusalem Temple ended in the first century CE it was the Hebrew Scriptures that provided a foundation for the development of rabbinical Judaismrabbisteachers to offer their midrashinterpretation of biblical laws and practices y The books outlined the Ten Commandments and other ethical teachings y established the major yearly festivals that would guide and sanctify the lives of Jews y They contained the psalms that became the everyday prayers of the Jews everywhere y The original individual books were originally oral material that was subsequently written down in some form perhaps as early as 900 BCE final form was not achieved until about 200 BCE y Divided into 3 sections o TORAH The TeachingStories of the creation Adam and Eve Noah and the Hebrew patriarchs and matriarchs Introduces Moses the great liberator and lawgiver and his brother Aaron the founder of priesthoodLaws about daily conductReligious ritual and material that would be of great importance to the later development of JudaismCompromises of five books called the Pentateuch o NEVIIM The ProphetsNamed for the individuals who spoke in Gods name to the Jewish peopleConcentrate on the history of the Israelite kingdom are called the Former ProphetsThe Latter Prophets are the voices of the individual prophets with more strongly visionary and moral in tone o KETUVIM The WritingsPrimarily short stories proverbs reflections on life hymn psalm lyrics and poetry y The three parts are known as the TANAKHy The historical accuracy of the Hebrew Bible is not always certain because not all biblical accounts can be verified by archaeological finds or references in other historical records Biblical History In the Beginnings Stories of Origins y These images and ideas are not only unforgettable but they are also part of Western culture and have influenced its laws art literature and ways of living y In the story of creation first chapter of Genesis God is portrayed as an intelligent active masculine power who overcomes primeval chaos To create order God imposes separations ie Separating light from darkness and land from water and completes his work of creation in stages six days God views what he has done and sees that it is good Satisfied with the result of all his work God rests on the seventh day o This first account is cosmic and measured o THE SECOND ACCOUNT begins in chapter 2 is more human utilized colourful dialogue and focuses on the first human parents Adam and Eve and on their moral dilemma y God creates Adam to live in the garden as its gardener and caretaker forming his body from the dust of the earth and breathing life into Adam with his own breath Adam is a copy of God himself for the human being y Adam is lonely So God decides to give him a companion Taking a rib from Adam while he is in a deep sleep God forms Eve around that ribo First story male and female created simultaneously o Second story male is created first than female afterward y God does not appear to be alone y In the second encounter God is not a pure spirit walks and eats and having made the garden to enjoy he strolls in it when he wants to enjoy its cool breezes y Adam and Eve can eat anywhere but the fruit from one of the trees that God needs to especially needs to nourish his super natural life and insighty Eve does so then urges Adam to do same y Exiled from Gods garden y They must live outside the garden work and suffer for the rest of their amazingly long lives o This story of Adam and Eve has influenced Western views of women men and marriage for several thousand years y Other stories include Adam and Eves children Cane and Abel sibling rivalry ended in death and Noahs arc
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