Christianity – Modernity
-theme of two streams of religion, mysticism and philosophy... they really get developed in the
middle ages... monastics kind of did both (monks), middle ages in Europe, monks were the ones
who could read and write... functions of monastery’s in medieval Europe was to preserve
learning (massive libraries)...
-in Christianity, mysticism opened the door for women... many female Christian mystics as
women were not considered capable of being rationale so they weren’t allowed into the
philosophy side of religion...
-movement of Christian philosophers, 12-13 century, two very popular ones... read in the
text... movement called scholasticism... (school, related to study = scholastic)... monks were
often scholastic... Thomas Aquinas was a monk...
-4 century (300 ce) was pivotal for Christianity, thats when it went from being outlawed to
being tolerated... a few emperors later, it became the state religion for the roman empire (within
-7 sacraments what are they?
-confirmation means confirming your bastismal vows...occurs later in life
-confession occurs throughout your life
-cant take communion in catholic and eastern orthodox traditions without confessing to a priest
-marriage happens once, ordination happens once....
-only bishop can ordain new priests... th th
Western Modernity- generally thought to start around 15 -16 century with the Renaissance
-changes economically, time when Columbus and others like him sailing off and discovering
new worlds... getting rich as merchants, colonization, expansion and increase in power of
European empires...face of the world is changing...
Christianity – Reformation
Protestant Reformation – started by Martin luther, all you needed to do to be a monk or nun is to
give up your life and join the order... (1438-1546)...in roman tradition, only one church in the
west... he lived in a time where this kind of perceived corruption was all around (heretics)... he
thought church lost its way, tenor of protestant reformation, not we need to do something new
and different, we need to go back to early Christianity (too much excess and indulgence)... this is
the father of the protestant reformation, plenty of others but he was the main dude)...protestant =
protest, someone who is protesting... reformation = want to do something about it, reform,
Luther: reacted against sale of indulgences – in 1517 nailed 95 theses to the door of a church in
-emphasized justification by faith alone (sola fides) and priesthood of all believers
Put on trial in 1521 at diet of worms...
-luther saw the catholic church’s asking of donations as blasphemous... against it...pergatory =
purging yourself to prepare for heaven... get out of pergatory = donation... catholic church reason
for this is because this is raising funds for st peters fascilica (church in Rome)... from lathers
perspective, believers are buying their way out of pergatory... fundamental splitting pointbetween protestants and catholics.... luthers reaction is to nail a document to door of local
cathedral....this event, on this date... is referred to as beginning of reformation, 1517....
-luther was a mystic not a philosopher... for him it was far more important to believe with your
heart rather than understand with the head... he had a mystical experience, when he’s pondering
the state of christanity, sitting down with bible, happens to be reading letters in ‘paul’, happens
to read the part where paul says ‘people are not justified by what they do but their faith, that is
what invites god’s grace’... realizes thats what the church has forgotten, the lessons of paul...
what you do does not amount to anything without faith, he felt that the church was all action and
no faith... e.g. donations
-most important theological doctrine for protestant reformation... justification by faith alone (sola
fides) and priesthood of all believers... get away from the church and back to the documents and
doctrine... basic problem, not enough protestants were literate in Latin, so no priests to translate
the church... where were the bibles? In churches... big problem...
-priesthood of all believers... don’t need an intermediary between you and god... every single
individual believer is a priest, there are no priests or monks... thus questioning entire purpose of
church authority and rejecting it... this is why protestants were perceived as major threat to the
church theologically, politically, and economically...
-luther was called to defend his views... technically an empire called holy roman empire, not
roman at all, based mostly in germany (current germany/Poland/Austria), this was kind of its
own empire, this was considered the secular arm of the church, an actual government/military
that was under the spiritual control of the church... number of german princes not technically part
of the empire, wanted their own authority, did not want to be under the pope...
-luther called to defend himself in imperial court, technically church is not allowed to get
involved in secular matters, technically they cannot arrest, execute, or jail people... made a
mockery of this during inquisition, for the sake of appearance he was called to the imperial
court... all the pope’s reps were there... diet of