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November Notes.docx

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Adam Green

November 14, 12 - Job shatters pre-existing categories – acts as a bridge to the next stage. - 2 problems - 1) False prophecy - leads to 4 things 1) Focus on the book, 2) Apocalypse, 3) Messiah, and 4) Gnosticism - 2) Evil – 1) immortality of soul, 2) Resurrection of the body, and 3) Gnosticism - Second Phase: Overview of the Era of Hellenistic/Rabbinic Judaism (Second Temple Judaism) - 8 Different topics - 1) Intro - 2) Key Dates - 3) Theme of Return from Exile - 4) Answer the question – why did prophecy end? - 5) Alexander the Great and Hellenism (impact on Judaism) - 6) Change in horizon (dealings with the other [Samaritans, Diaspora, and Anti-Semitism]) - 7) Religious Divisions (Sects [Pharisees]) - Judaism reinvents itself in several periods of its history: - 1) Abraham - 2) Conquering Canaan - 3) Return from Exile - 4) After the destruction of the 2 ndtemple - 5) Middle of the Middle Ages (codified law) - 6) Modern Judaism - 7) State of Israel - The period when classical Judaism emerges – new form - Western civilization comes to be. - Era of ancient/classical Greece - ^Great philosophers, plays, history, rhetoric. - Period of the greatness of Rome - ^Politics, philosophers - Rise of Christianity - Rise of Islam - In the wake of the Maccabean revolution is the creation of sects - Herod the Great – builders – Raises the 2 nd temple to its greatest glory. - 2 Jewish Revolts against Rome 66 – 64, and Bar Kochba Revolt. 2) Key Dates - 587 BCE– Exile of Judeans to Babylon, Destruction of the First Temple, Jeremiah and Ezekiel - 538 – Return from Exile under the Persian King Cyrus - 333 – Alexander the Great conquers Judea - 167-164 – Maccabean Revolt - 63 – Entry of Pompei into Jerusalem (fights between 2 Maccabean princes – invite the Romans in to settle dispute – Begins Roman control of nddea - 70 CE – 2 Temple is destroyed by Romans - ^Escape from Jerusalem of Yohanan ben Zakkai – Escaped in a coffin - 135 – End of Bar Kochba Revolt (Rabbi Akiva declares BK as the messiah) - 170 – Judah HaNassi – Jewish governor – Edits the first part of the Talmud – A good friend of the Romans - 426 – Last of the Patriarchs – End of Jewish life in Judea - 589 – In Babylon (Iraq) – the Jewish academies are re-established (Gaon) – Beginning of the flourishing of Medieval Judaism - 630 – Pope Gregory defines Papal policy for the Jews 3) Theme of Return from Exile – As a signal of a change in Judaism - Good Side: Was a signal that G-d‟s promises to the Jews were going to be maintained. - Negative Side: Deep despair (depression) had come over the Jews since the exile – G-d wasn‟t with them – perhaps the covenant wasn‟t being maintained and abandoned their promises to them. - Rebuilding of the Temple - Hope for the future (prophets) - Was a challenge to the leadership to keep the faith going. - We know the least about this period in the history of Judaism - Persian Period (up until Alexander) - The book of the Torah became more widespread – Read by Ezra when he returns – the message is that there is now a way to guide life of the people – follow the Torah - Reutilization of charisma - Starts with a charismatic figure – In this case the prophets - Ezra the Scribe – Authorized by Persian King - Nehemiah came with Ezra to Judea – Had a great covenant renewal ceremony. - Re-educate the children and teach them Hebrew - Did not like that Jewish men married foreign wives and wanted them to divorce them. - No mechanism for conversion 4) Answer the question – why did prophecy end? - 700 year run – Samuel – Malachi - Seems to disappear - Parallel between the rise and fall of prophecy with Kings. - The exile sapped it of its energy – answer given by Maimonides – prophecy only arises when a people are powerful, energetic, and living with the hope for the future. - Positive – it had succeeded and transformed the people – the new leadership was shaped by the prophets - New elite have been educated by the prophets - The prophets were fortunate in history – who teaches the teachers? 5) Alexander the Great and Hellenism (impact on Judaism) - Conqueror - Allowed people to keep their own religion and beliefs - Justification for being a conqueror - Missionary of Hellenism – Student of Aristotle – Offered the Greek culture to everyone. - Saw himself as a protagonist - Very nice to the Jews – According to legends – Meetings between Alexander the Great and Jewish Scholars – they would put a trick question to him and he wouldn‟t be able to get it – was told the answers and then laughed – liked the Judeans - Changed the cultural landscape of Judea - Dies young and leaves an empire which hasn‟t properly divided up and leaves no children – divided by Seluses and Ptolemy – One sizes Egypt (Ptolemy) and one seizes Syria (Seluses) - 198 – Judeans was handed over to the Syrian side - Antiochus the 4 thEpiphanies (G-d manifest). - ^Embarks on a new program – Forcible Hellenization 6) Change in horizon (dealings with the other [Samaritans, Diaspora, and Anti-Semitism]) - What is the relationship with the Samaritans with the Jews - Related to the word Samaria (the northern kingdom) - When it was conquered in 722 by the Assyrians they swept up the elite of the society and dispersed them into Assyria – the 10 lost tribes - They also brought in settlers from places they conquered and placed them in Samaria - ^They kept being attacked by lions - ^They feel like they upset the local G-d - Made a syncretism between Judaism which was slightly different - They believe in the Torah but it is different from the Jewish Torah – the place that they are supposed to worship G-d was not Jerusalem but Mount Gerizim. - They also accept the book of Joshua and the 5 books of the Torah (nothing else). - Rejected the books of the Prophets, etc… - “Authentic tradition” - Lead to conflicts – they rebelled against Alexander - Strange distorted mirror of mainstream Judaism – whole new category - When the Jews come back from Babylon they are opposed by the Samaritans - A good Samaritan is an impossible concept - Emergence of the diaspora - Many Jews stayed in Babylon as well as in Alexandria (Philo Judeas – leader of the community in Egypt), also in Tarsus (Saul of Tarsus), etc… - How did they preserve their religion when they went abroad? - At many times during this period there was 1) political and religious oppression - 2) Economically depressed province of the empire - 3) Proselytism (A person who converts from one religion to another) - The bible was translated to Greek - Jews kept a connection with the land of Israel – maintain the temple – tax – active connection with Judea - So evolved – people in the diaspora against Romans - New dimensions to Judaism - Emergence of Anti-Semitism - Pre-Christian – begins among Greeks and Romans and Egyptians - Non- conformism of the Jews - They did not worship the other gods that people worshiped - Would not participate civic activities that involved the worship of the gods - Moral issues - Attraction of non-Jews to Judaism - The fact that people were going towards Judaism and away from Paganism was not seen nicely - Economic competition - Political rebelliousness – constantly rebelling - Hagel – Philosophy of Religion – Statement – The Jewish G-d refused to join the pantheon and therefore he survived the destruction. – All the Gods of the peoples were honored in the Pantheon with statue except the Jewish G-d. - Given citizenship without the duty to worship the gods - The ordinary people resented this 7) Religious Divisions (Sects [Pharisees]) - Second temple people an ethos prevailed – no constituency saying “lets worship their gods, etc…” - The consensus formed around the 5 books of Moses and the books of the Prophets. - Focused on a book of religion – need schools, literacy, leaders, etc… - One has to institute these things to make a new Judaism - Democratization of religion - First temple – argument of the elites - Anyone can become educated or a religious teacher - As a scholarly system it is open to everyone – but who gets into the schools is based on talent and ability (not birth or divine chosen- ness) - New medium of revelation - Revelation – the word of G-d coming to human beings - The interpreter (scholars, thinkers, teachers, etc..) not being forth new insights from the Torah – on the same level as the words of the prophet - New institution evolved – Synagogue - Menachem Stern – Made the statement – “the synagogue was one of the greatest revolutions of religion and society” - Lee Levine – Some version started in the Babylonian exile (origin of the synagogue) - 3 Classical functions for the synagogue - 1) Worship - 2) Education - 3) Community Centre (Social Center/Meeting House) – Discussions and Social functions - Synagogue can be built anywhere - Does not require sacrifices and no priesthood - ^Every religious institution required sacrifice with this exception November 21, 12 - Maccabean revolt - Confrontation between Judaism and Hellenism - 1) Setting the Stage - 2) Basic Historical Facts - 3) What the Maccabean revolt represents (political impact) - 4) What the Maccabean revolt represents (religious impact) - The significance of this event – The high point of Second Temple Judaism. - Religious renewal - This event will testify to the rootedness – the reform of Ezra – Introduces all kinds of new principles – Laid a better foundation for the Jews – Put under the test of the Maccabees and it was upheld - In the first 3 centuries in the Christian Church – This was a holiday (Channukah) – until Constantine reformed Christianity - The man who wrote the first side of the Talmud (Mishnah – Judah Ha‟nasi) – He did not mention a word of the Maccabees – He didn't like it - When he put together the Mishnah – he believed that the Maccabees would be a false representation to rebels - A new type of religious sensibility – Apocalypse emerges on the
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