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University of Toronto St. George
Joseph Bryant

March 14 12Powerful families would make sure that their male offspring would be trained to obtain high positions in the churchContended to become popesThe Sacralization of Christian Combat thth In 8 and 9 centuriesPopes Leo IV and John VII promised that all who died in defending against Arabs Magyars or Vikings will win eternal lifeBy 1050 the Church monopolizes the ordination of knights thwidely considered as constituting an 8 SacramentThe initiates armour and weaponry would then be blessed and smeared with holy oilPope Gregory VII 107385 proclaimed that military service for Christ could secure a complete remissio peccatorumHoly war as penancekilling the enemies of god is deemed more effective than prayer fasting or works of mercyCrusadinga devotional act of armed pilgrimage initially to reclaim the Holy Land from Muslim control but which expanded to include religious wars against pagans in Eastern Europe and the Baltic region Greek and Russian Orthodox Christians Tartars and Christian heretics such as the Cathars and Hussites as well as political enemies of the popes in these operations massacres against local Jewish populations were commonChristianMuslim hostility had been rising owing to Seljuk Turkish pressure on the Byzantines and since 1009 when the Fatimid mad Caliph alHakim ordered the destruction of churches and synagogues throughout North Africa and the Middle EastIn 1063 Pope Alexander II involved in the ReconquistaChristians fighting against Muslims would be absolved of sins if died in battlePope Urban II calls for deliverance of the Holy Land Nov 1095declares it an act of penance so severe that it is fully sufficient to remit all the sins of the confessing crusadersCrusader ceremonialTaking the crossinspired by Matt 1929Purse and staff like the pilgrimThe sacred vowCrusader rights and privileges moratorium on debt repayment and interest exemption from tolls and taxes automatic release from excommunication personal confessors who had wide powers of absolutionMonks served as recruiting agentspledged that monasteries would safeguard property and the families of the crusaders
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