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RLG280 Muslim tradtitions.rtf

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University of Toronto St. George
David Pearley

Muslim TraditionsIslam means submission in Arabic Therefore a person who professes Islam is muslim one who submits to GodAll things are muslims Plants animals and angels But human submission Islam is the only one done by choiceFive Pillars of Islamthe Shahadah to declare or bear witness thatThere is no god except GodMuhammad is messenger of GodThrough this profession of faith in front of two Muslim witnesses one becomes legally a Muslimto establish regular worshipobligatory prayers salat first islamic rituals to be institutedprayers preeded by ritual washing wuduprayers consist of cycles or units called rakahsdone at dawn noon mid afternoon sunset and nightopening prayer is fatihah which is similar to lords prayerIslam has no Sabbathfriday is day of worshipto pay the zakat prescribed obligatory tax almsvoluntary alms are sadaqah repaid on Day of Resurrectionto observe the fast of Ramadanaccording to Quran its a universal form of worship enjoined by scriptures of all faithsmonth in which the Quran was revealed to the Prophtends with festival called Id alFitr3 day celebrationto perform thehajj pilgrimageinstituted by Abraham father of prophets and first muslim in remembrance of event in which God asked Abraham to sacrifice his sonincludes circulation around the Kabaritual of stoning and blood sacrificebegins on the eight of Dhu alHijjah the twelfth month of Islamic Calendarits completion marks a new stage in the life of MuslimOriginsLife of MuhammadSeventh century the prophet Muhammad born in Mecca into the Quraysh tribe around the year 570 Quarysh tribe dominated the majority of the cityOnce a year during Ramadan Muhammad spent days in seclusion in a cave It was during one of these retreats that he received the call to prophethoodThe angel Gabriel jibril in arabic appeared to him and called upon him as messenger of GodHis wife took him to Waraqah bin Nawfal who confirmed his mission as a Prophet nabi with a sacred law much like that of MosesHe preached with little success for 12 years The Meccans did not wish to abandon the ways of their ancestorsFirst to accept new faith were the prophets wife his cousin and his slave and faithful companion Abu BakrFirst followers were vilified much like Jesus followers615 group of Muslims without tribal protection faced persecution by the Meccans They escaped by following advice of the prophet to cross the Red Sea to Abyssinia619 Prophet was left without support after his wife and uncle died Soon after he experienced miraj or night journey travelling from Mecca to Jerusalem in one night then ascending to heaventhere he was granted an audience with God and met earlier prophets
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