March 11, 13
- 3 Types:
- 1) Religious
- 2) Political
- 3) Cultural
- Beginnings of Jewish emancipation – finding equal political and
economic rights for the Jews.
- 4 Ways to respond/approach to modernity:
- 1) Pro-Emancipation attitude – We want to be citizens, not get rid
of religious identity (be a goy in the street and a Jew in the home).
- Religion is sidelined a bit but still relevant
- 2) Assimilation – Let’s merge with the people who give us these
rights – doesn’t have to be through conversion. Religion is
- 3) Enclavism – Emancipation is bad for Judaism because it merges
us with the general culture – we have to be separate. By no means
a social threat so they are usually left alone.
- 4) Zionism – Rejection of these three approaches (mostly a
rejection of assimilation).
- You can remain a Jews regardless of affiliation – Jews could never
be fully accepted by non-Jewish nations. – Also, through human
dignity – nationalism – Everyone has a place of their own but the
- Jewish freedom and flourishing – You can be as good and bad as
anyone else. – Fairness.
- Chronologically Religious Zionism comes first
- Yehuda Alkalai (early)
- Tzvi Hersch Kalischer (early)
- Abraham Isaac Kook (later)
- For the early - Self help – classical attitude of returning to Israel.
- They believe that you don't have to wait for G-d – self help
- A rejection of the cult of powerlessness – Richard Rubinstein
- They said – Lay low, don't cause any trouble, be good “citizens”,
- The arguments of the religious Zionists are very similar to the
- Gives Jews an opportunity to learn other skills like agricultural skills
unlike being a middleman. – Dohm argued for equal rights but
encourage them into other pursuits i.e. agricultural. - The idea is that the land is holy – it needs to be worked – this
- Dignity – like other nations.
- In the reading:
- It’s going to be a gradual process – if they all move there at once
they will live like Bedouins.
- 106 @ bottom – They must organize and unite, choose leaders,
- Alkalai went out to seek support and he found some.
- We have a land which we were taken from – we have a right to it
- Pg. 111 – Zionism is non-miraculous.
- The redemption will begin by waking support by the philanthropists.
As well as finding support in other nations (England, France, etc…)
- All of Israel wont go in at once (Isaiah – Israel will grow gradually).
- Beyond all this – Jewish farming – bringing redemption is a this-
worldly way – Non- miraculous and self-help.
- Like the other nations – We have a nation, why are we not going to
- Kook – 1865 – 1935
- Lived from - Civil war – Nazism
- Argues that Jewish immigration to Israel (1880’s – starting)
(because of pogroms and because of economic value).
- Yeridah – going down – in spiritual status.
- Judaism needs political sovereignty, instrumentalities of
government representative of the majority culture.
- The land itself is intrinsically pure (he’s a mystic).
- It can be made pure again.
- Restoration of Jewish creativity.
- He’s a mystic
- He’s very esoteric – don't read anything straight forward