RLG100Y1 Lecture 2: Darshanas – Jan 13.docx
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Darshanas – Jan 13
•Mastikas Buddhism and Jainism. They were developing around this time and
there was a rigourious philosophical/religious debate within these communities.
Much of the argumentation that was developed was in opposition to this i.e.
renunciation was affected by the interaction with Buddhism/Jainism.
•Commentaries were written on these Sutras.
•As we go through the Darshanas, they were rivals. They wanted to win debates
and they wanted their philosophical view of the world to be understood.
•Vedanta, and within there is Advata which is monistic
1. Assume the Veda is revelation or revealed truth
2. Moksha is ultimate goal
3. Exegectical text analysis
4. Transcendent -ultimate reality
6. Body, nature of matter, explaining cosmos/consciousness
2 Philosophical aspects of Darshana system:
I. Ontology nature of being
II. Epistemology knowledge i.e. how do we properly come to know things, how do
•Pramanas : ways of knowing i.e. role of language in cognition and consciousness,
the way we know things.
•The One and Many Brahman = atman
•Dvaita = Brahman and atman are not one
•If we have clay and a pot, the pot is inherently existing in the clay = everything is
included in the one and there is no potter required
•Another view: the potter is the necessity since the individual is required to make
this object (pot).
6 Philosophical Systems: Sad-Darshanas - Astikas
1. Samkhya Dualistic of matter and self. Matter and the self are distinct, there is no
direct equality between the two.
2. Yoga Patanjali, based on a samkhya understanding of cosmos and meditation
3. Nyaya logic. How do we have an understanding of the world? How do thoughts
arise? Ultimate goal is to have the proper knowledge to achieve the ultimate goal
4. Vaisecika assumes the reality of the many. Each thing in the world is distinct and
5. Mimamsa (Purva Mimamsa) assumes reality of the many.
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