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Lecture 2

RLG100Y1 Lecture 2: Darshanas – Jan 13.docx

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Ian Richards

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Darshanas – Jan 13
Mastikas Buddhism and Jainism. They were developing around this time and
there was a rigourious philosophical/religious debate within these communities.
Much of the argumentation that was developed was in opposition to this i.e.
renunciation was affected by the interaction with Buddhism/Jainism.
Commentaries were written on these Sutras.
As we go through the Darshanas, they were rivals. They wanted to win debates
and they wanted their philosophical view of the world to be understood.
Vedanta, and within there is Advata which is monistic
General Features:
1. Assume the Veda is revelation or revealed truth
2. Moksha is ultimate goal
3. Exegectical text analysis
4. Transcendent -ultimate reality
5. Systemic
6. Body, nature of matter, explaining cosmos/consciousness
2 Philosophical aspects of Darshana system:
I. Ontology nature of being
II. Epistemology knowledge i.e. how do we properly come to know things, how do
thoughts arise/develop
Pramanas : ways of knowing i.e. role of language in cognition and consciousness,
the way we know things.
The One and Many Brahman = atman
Dvaita = Brahman and atman are not one
If we have clay and a pot, the pot is inherently existing in the clay = everything is
included in the one and there is no potter required
Another view: the potter is the necessity since the individual is required to make
this object (pot).
6 Philosophical Systems: Sad-Darshanas - Astikas
1. Samkhya Dualistic of matter and self. Matter and the self are distinct, there is no
direct equality between the two.
2. Yoga  Patanjali, based on a samkhya understanding of cosmos and meditation
3. Nyaya logic. How do we have an understanding of the world? How do thoughts
arise? Ultimate goal is to have the proper knowledge to achieve the ultimate goal
4. Vaisecika  assumes the reality of the many. Each thing in the world is distinct and
5. Mimamsa (Purva Mimamsa)  assumes reality of the many.
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