Lecture on Islam, November 22nd, November 27th

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5 Aug 2010
School
Department
Course
November 13th 2006
World Religions ± RLG100
Islam
- 1.3 ± 1.4 billion Muslims around the world
- 2nd largest religion
- fastest growing religion in the world
- Indonesia ± highest population of Muslims
o India ± 2nd, Pakistan ± 3rd, Bangladesh ± 4th etc
- 600 million Muslims in Canada, mostly in Toronto
- ISLAM ± Arabic word ± means submission/surrender ± the ideal of a person perfecting Islam is that he/she
surrenders to god
- Traces (lineage) back to Hebrew patriarch ± ABRAHAM ± genetic
- Ishmael (ISMAIL) = parent of Arabs
- Abraham = central figure of Islam ± view relationship with god as being the (paradine) norm of how all human
beings should be with god
- Islam recognized the bulk of Jewish and Christian history
- sacred book of Islam ± Quran ± mentions Jewish prophets
o Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad
o Special significant = all received revelation from god
o Moses Æ occupies more space in the Quran than any other prophet (about 200 times)
o Parallel between life of Muhammad and Moses
o The Hebrew scriptures are held in very high regard by Muslims
o Recognizes Jesus as a prophet and messenger of god ± world renouncing, wondering prophet with deep
compassion ± willing to suffer for his people
Jesus = great prophet
Affirms virgin birth of Jesus
Denies that Jesus was the son of god
Denies the divinity of Jesus (just an advance prophet)
- Muhammad ± final prophet (long line of prophet) ± drawing on the wisdom that is already prevalent ± growing on
insights of all other prophets ± LAST prophet (none to come after) ± direct revelation from god ± way of being in
the world, life example (SUNNAH) model of an ideal Piest life Æ stories about the prophet (life, ideas, thoughts,
way of doing things²narratives) much of the Muslim law (history)
o Affirms mission, ministry of Jesus, Christian scripture
o Life example of prophet Muhammad
HISTORIC BACKGROUND
- Arabian peninsula ± Saudi Arabia ± 7th century CE
- before Islam ± area characterized by various practices ± JAHILIYAH (foolishness, ignorance, lack of refinement
and civilization)
- before 7th century CE - worshiped many gods and goddesses ± virtues of manliness, tribal loyalty, good will,
generosity Æ FRQWDLQHGWRPHPEHUVRIRQVRZQFODQWULEH± protection from harm and others
- family honours ± blood feuds ± lasted from generation to generation ± men = many wives, no provisions for
protecting women or children
- fatalism
- dismantle tribal loyalty ± humanitarian bonds ± common allegiance to god
- roots from trading town ± MECCA ± flourishing mercantile center ± point on major trade route, saw a lot of traffic ±
focus of major pilgrimage route ± ancient structure of KABAH ± believe that the Kabah was built by Abraham and
Ismail ± before Islam, the shrine = pilgrim image
- after Islam ± Kahbah taken over and dedicated to ONE sacred god ± today is still big pilgrimage site
- cosmopolitan city
- Mecca ± influenced by tribe ± QURAYSH ± numerous clans ± powerful tribe
o Muhammad = member of QURAYSH
o 570 CE (6th century) ± father died before he was born and mother died shortly after ± orphan under care
of grandfather ± after death of grandfather, brought up by uncle
o may have accompanied grandfather on caravan journeys
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o worked for wealthy widow Khadija ± eventually married Khadija ± recounts first religious experiences to
her
o Khadija = first Muslim
o Diplomat, trustworthy ± Muhammad
o During retreat ± meditate in cave ± angel grasps him and demands of him to read/recite ± muhammad =
terrified ± actually the angel GABRIEL ± returns from cave and talks to Khadija ± over the course of time,
realizes that those encounters are direct revelations ± mission proposed by god to become last prophet
o Comes to be more confident in his experiences ± feels that he should spread word to entire Mecca
society
o Mecca unsure ± it would lead to a great change in Mecca society ± feared society of religious and
economic status of Mecca ± WKHUHIRUH0HFFDWULEHUHVLVWHG0XKDPPDGVWHDFKLQJV
o 622 CE ± Muhammad is invited to another town to arbitrate a dispute of the townspeople because of his
diplomatic skill ± move to the city of MADINAH (city of the prophet) ± marks the beginning of the Muslim
o HIJRA ± ³IOLJK± 0XKDPPDGVHVFDSHIURP0HFFDWR<DWKULE
o Now in a hospitable environment ± FKDQFHWRSUHDFKDOOWKDWKHVEHHQOHDUQLQJIURPUHYHODWLRQVIURPJRG
± gets to set up a paladin for what Muslim society should look like
o A.H. ± After Hijra
o Lead my messenger of god ± the state is being run by theocratic structure ± provides opportunity to
develop an ideal Muslim society
o Trial and error:
Muhammad tries to follow Jewish practices (praying in the direction of Jerusalem) ± as time goes
RQWKH-HZLVKOHDGHUVKLSGRHVWUHIOHFWSURSKHW- hood of Muhammad ± Madinah = separate
practices ± e.g. holiday of Ramadan, prayers in the direction of Mecca
November 15th 2006
- Mecca Æ Madina = HIJRA
- Establish a community and set up foundation for how a muslim community might live
- 10 years of relative peace ± larger society that is receptive to the message of Islam
- political and civil administration
- 1st rehearsals of ritual practices
- IMPORTANT PERIOD ± Muslims look back at this event as a utopia - instruction on civil administration,
government affairs, economical affairs
- Madina ± Secure home
- Muhammad in better position to negotiate
- Him and group undertake a series of battles ± muslims outnumbered by meccans but still is victorious and take
over mecca
- 632 ± Muhammad dies
- Muhammad ± founder of islam tradition ± first and foremost a religious leader (messenger of god) ± political and
civil leader
- Muslims all over the world look to the life and example of Muhammad for inspiration and guidance
- 0DQ\OHJHQGVDQGVWRULHVDVVRFLDWHGWR0XKDPPDGVOLIH± made into a text = HADITH
- 1000s of legends ± discussing all aspects of life
o need to determine which are authentic ± scholarly activity
- 632 ± small community without a leader
o Muslims needed a leader so Islam practices will not deteriorate
o CALIPHATE/KAHALIFAT
o Khalif ± leader of the community ± both a religious and political leader ± authorized by community to
guide community on religious and political affairs ± chosen by elders of the community
o 1st Khalif ± $EX%DNU0XKDPPDGVIULHQGUHLJQZDVVKRUWDERXWD\HDU± consolidate enter peninsula
under the rule of Islam
o 2nd ± Vmer ± 1st actual administrator of rapidly expanding empire ± by the end of rule ± Palestine, Egypt,
Iran, Iraq ± centers of Muslim learning
o 3rd ± Uthman ± seeds of conflict and disagreement ± contested by several groups ± corruption ± Uthman
assassinated by angry mob
o 4th ± Ali ± son in law of Muhammad
- 4 rightly guided Khalifs
- Community separates after them:
o Sunni ± majority (Saudi Arabia, Africa)
x %HOLHYHWKDW.KDOLILVFKRVHQPDQRI0XKDPPDGVWULEH± Quraysh)
o 6KL¶L(Shia) ± those that broke away from the majority (Iran, Iraq, South Asia) ± 10-15% today
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Document Summary

1. 3  1. 4 billion muslims around the world. 2nd largest religion fastest growing religion in the world. India  2nd, pakistan  3rd, bangladesh  4th etc. 600 million muslims in canada, mostly in toronto. Islam  arabic word  means submission/surrender  the ideal of a person perfecting islam is that he/she surrenders to god. Traces (lineage) back to hebrew patriarch  abraham  genetic. Abraham = central figure of islam  view relationship with god as being the (paradine) norm of how all human beings should be with god. S denies that jesus was the son of god. S denies the divinity of jesus (just an advance prophet) Ismail  before islam, the shrine = pilgrim image after islam  kahbah taken over and dedicated to one sacred god  today is still big pilgrimage site cosmopolitan city. S muhammad tries to follow jewish practices (praying in the direction of jerusalem)  as time goes.

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