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Lecture on Islam-November 15th

Course Code
Andre Maintenay

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November 15th
- Mecca Æ Madina = HIJRA
- Establish a community and set up foundation for how a muslim community might live
- 10 years of relative peace ± larger society that is receptive to the message of Islam
- political and civil administration
- 1st rehearsals of ritual practices
- IMPORTANT PERIOD ± Muslims look back at this event as a utopia - instruction on civil
administration, government affairs, economical affairs
- Madina ± Secure home
- Muhammad in better position to negotiate
- Him and group undertake a series of battles ± muslims outnumbered by meccans but still is
victorious and take over mecca
- 632 ± Muhammad dies
- Muhammad ± founder of islam tradition ± first and foremost a religious leader (messenger of god)
± political and civil leader
- Muslims all over the world look to the life and example of Muhammad for inspiration and guidance
- 1000s of legends ± discussing all aspects of life
o need to determine which are authentic ± scholarly activity
- 632 ± small community without a leader
o Muslims needed a leader so Islam practices will not deteriorate
o Khalif ± leader of the community ± both a religious and political leader ± authorized by
community to guide community on religious and political affairs ± chosen by elders of the
o 1st Khalif ± $EX%DNU0XKDPPDGVIULHQGUHLJQZDVVKRUWDERXWD\HDU± consolidate
enter peninsula under the rule of Islam
o 2nd ± Vmer ± 1st actual administrator of rapidly expanding empire ± by the end of rule ±
Palestine, Egypt, Iran, Iraq ± centers of Muslim learning
o 3rd ± Uthman ± seeds of conflict and disagreement ± contested by several groups ±
corruption ± Uthman assassinated by angry mob
o 4th ± Ali ± son in law of Muhammad
- 4 rightly guided Khalifs
- Community separates after them:
o Sunni ± majority (Saudi Arabia, Africa)
o 6KL¶L(Shia) ± those that broke away from the majority (Iran, Iraq, South Asia) ± 10-15%
x Belief the Khalilf shoud be hereditary, descending from the immediate
family of Muhammad
x 12 imans
Began as a political argument over who should succeed Muhammad
Widened ± into a division over belief, practice and general religious approach
- within 100 years of death of Muhammad ± Islam has taken a large part of Asia and Africa ±
began to enter Europe (Spain)
- community widespread in short span of time
- major unifying feature ± scripture ± QURAN
o series of revelations experienced by Muhammad in a span of 22 years
o not literary style like the bible ± not chronological
o order ± shortest to longest revelation
o 114 chapters (suras) ± each has traditional name
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