Lecture on Islam-November 15th

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5 Aug 2010
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Course
November 15th
- Mecca Æ Madina = HIJRA
- Establish a community and set up foundation for how a muslim community might live
- 10 years of relative peace ± larger society that is receptive to the message of Islam
- political and civil administration
- 1st rehearsals of ritual practices
- IMPORTANT PERIOD ± Muslims look back at this event as a utopia - instruction on civil
administration, government affairs, economical affairs
- Madina ± Secure home
- Muhammad in better position to negotiate
- Him and group undertake a series of battles ± muslims outnumbered by meccans but still is
victorious and take over mecca
- 632 ± Muhammad dies
- Muhammad ± founder of islam tradition ± first and foremost a religious leader (messenger of god)
± political and civil leader
- Muslims all over the world look to the life and example of Muhammad for inspiration and guidance
- 0DQ\OHJHQGVDQGVWRULHVDVVRFLDWHGWR0XKDPPDGVOLIH± made into a text = HADITH
- 1000s of legends ± discussing all aspects of life
o need to determine which are authentic ± scholarly activity
- 632 ± small community without a leader
o Muslims needed a leader so Islam practices will not deteriorate
o CALIPHATE/KAHALIFAT
o Khalif ± leader of the community ± both a religious and political leader ± authorized by
community to guide community on religious and political affairs ± chosen by elders of the
community
o 1st Khalif ± $EX%DNU0XKDPPDGVIULHQGUHLJQZDVVKRUWDERXWD\HDU± consolidate
enter peninsula under the rule of Islam
o 2nd ± Vmer ± 1st actual administrator of rapidly expanding empire ± by the end of rule ±
Palestine, Egypt, Iran, Iraq ± centers of Muslim learning
o 3rd ± Uthman ± seeds of conflict and disagreement ± contested by several groups ±
corruption ± Uthman assassinated by angry mob
o 4th ± Ali ± son in law of Muhammad
- 4 rightly guided Khalifs
- Community separates after them:
o Sunni ± majority (Saudi Arabia, Africa)
x %HOLHYHWKDW.KDOLILVFKRVHQPDQRI0XKDPPDGVWULEH± Quraysh)
o 6KL¶L(Shia) ± those that broke away from the majority (Iran, Iraq, South Asia) ± 10-15%
today
x Belief the Khalilf shoud be hereditary, descending from the immediate
family of Muhammad
x 12 imans
Began as a political argument over who should succeed Muhammad
Widened ± into a division over belief, practice and general religious approach
- within 100 years of death of Muhammad ± Islam has taken a large part of Asia and Africa ±
began to enter Europe (Spain)
- community widespread in short span of time
- major unifying feature ± scripture ± QURAN
o series of revelations experienced by Muhammad in a span of 22 years
o not literary style like the bible ± not chronological
o order ± shortest to longest revelation
o 114 chapters (suras) ± each has traditional name
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Document Summary

Establish a community and set up foundation for how a muslim community might live. 10 years of relative peace larger society that is receptive to the message of islam political and civil administration. Important period muslims look back at this event as a utopia - instruction on civil administration, government affairs, economical affairs. Him and group undertake a series of battles muslims outnumbered by meccans but still is victorious and take over mecca. Muhammad founder of islam tradition first and foremost a religious leader (messenger of god) Muslims all over the world look to the life and example of muhammad for inspiration and guidance. ,3003/8,3/894708,884. ,90/94:,22,/810 made into a text = hadith. 1000s of legends discussing all aspects of life: need to determine which are authentic scholarly activity. Community separates after them: sunni majority (saudi arabia, africa, $(shia) those that broke away from the majority (iran, iraq, south asia) 10-15%

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