Lecture 14 - jainism and sikhism

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14 Mar 2011
School
Department
Course
RLG 100/280 - LECTURE 14
SIKHISM
JAINISM
SIKHISM
from sikh (“disciple”)
• community of SikhsPanth
• arose in context of Sant tradition (N. India)
Guru Nanak (1469-1539) – first Sikh Guru
-biography drawn from janam-sakhis
-had mystical experience – given cup of amrit (“nectar of immortality”) from God
-responded with mul mantra (“primary” mantra)
• Nanak ad followers settled in Punjab region (N.E. India)
• emphasis on meditation, hymn-singing, recollection of God’s name (influence of bhakti and
Sufism)
• 9 successors (Gurus) to Nanak – succession hereditary after 4
th
Guru (Ramdas)
• under Ramdas, Amrtisar (“pool of the nectar of immortality”) founded
• under 5
th
Guru (Arjan), Harimandir Sahib (Golden Temple) built
Adi Granth compiled under Arjan (formal readers of Adi Granth – granthis)
• sacred textAdi Granth (“first book,” composed of works by Nanak and later saints)
-granthi: official reader of Adi Granth
• 10
th
guru, Gobind Singh (1666-1708), formed the Khalsa – elite group of Sikhs
-designated the Adi Granth as future Guru – Guru Granth Sahib
-gave male Khalsa members name Singh (“lion”), female Kaur (“princess)
• 5 distinct marks of male members of Khalsa (panj kakke, or 5 Ks)
• growth of Sikh self-identity, independence in particular in 18
th
-19
th
c.
• independent consolidated state of Punjab under Ranjit Singh (1780-1839)
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Document Summary

Sikhism: from sikh ( disciple , community of sikhs panth, arose in context of sant tradition (n. india, guru nanak (1469-1539) first sikh guru. Had mystical experience given cup of amrit ( nectar of immortality ) from god. Responded with mul mantra ( primary mantra: nanak ad followers settled in punjab region (n. e. India: emphasis on meditation, hymn-singing, recollection of god"s name (influence of bhakti and. Granthi: official reader of adi granth: 10th guru, gobind singh (1666-1708), formed the khalsa elite group of sikhs. Designated the adi granth as future guru guru granth sahib. Jainism: central concept ahimsa ( non-harmfulness , jain/jaina from jina ( victor ) those who have achieved liberation and become great teachers. Also called tirthankaras ( ford-builders : 24 tirthankaras in a life-cycle most recent nataputta vardhamana, or mahavira ( great hero ), trad. 599-527 bce: no creator god tirthankaras revered over gods, karma physically real accumulates on soul, keeps it bound to samsara.

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