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Lecture

Early Caliphate, Sectarian Divisions, Islamic law, Cultural Spheres

2 Pages
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Department
Religion
Course Code
RLG100Y1
Professor
Andre Maintenay

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Early Caliphate, Sectarian Divisions, Islamic law, Cultural Spheres
Reading: Ch. 4 “The Islamic Tradition,” pp. 217-257
November 17
th
, 2010.
Death of Muhammad (founder of Islam) 632 CE
Who will succeed Muhammad:
Some believed should be member of own family, recounted he had proposed his
son-in-law A li as his successor
Others believed Ali was too young at the time and leadership was passed to
Muhammad’s good friend Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr begins institution of caliphate – first caliph (leader) of Muslim tradition
Secular authority, pr imarily, political and administrative head of community
Had very shor t period of leadership (2 years) before he died
Was able to contain community and expanded within Arabian Peninsula
Was succeeded by Omar
Omar lead community for 10 years
Made great many vi tal military and political decisions
Regarded as military genius
Expanded inf luence of Islam militarily, socially in quite significant ways: took
Persian Empire through strategizing and during his reign he was able to take the
areas of Syria, Palestine, Egypt, modern day Iraq
Adopted convention of dating Muslim history from date of Hijrah in 622 –
migration to Medina
The one who decided to adopt Hijery calendar as nor m of Islam
Was assassinated
Succeeded by Uthman
His reign marked by cor ruption
Accuses of various types of abuse of author ity
Accused of favouring family over others, favour ing certain ethnicities over others
Therefore great deal of opposition to his rule
Also assassinated
Succeeded by Ali, son-in-law of Muhammad as well as his cousin
Together referred to as four Caliphs who are understood as having more or less,
close connection with Muhammad and guiding community cor rectly – Sunni
community
Others held that three first Caliphs were interlopers and didnt merit the leadership
of the Muslim community and should have gone to Ali in the first place, he was
by all standards the most wor thy – Shia community
Sunni and Shia for m two major denominations of Islam, originating from same
history
Sunni – hold four r ights guided
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Description
Early Caliphate, Sectarian Divisions, Islamic law, Cultural Spheres Reading: Ch. 4 The Islamic Tradition, pp. 217-257 th November 17 , 2010. Death of Muhammad (founder of Islam) 632 CE Who will succeed Muhammad: Some believed should be member of own family, recounted he had proposed his son-in-law Ali as his successor Others believed Ali was too young at the time and leadership was passed to Muhammads good friend Abu Bakr Abu Bakr begins institution of caliphate first caliph (leader) of Muslim tradition Secular authority, primarily, political and administrative head of community Had very short period of leadership (2 years) before he died Was able to contain community and expanded within Arabian Peninsula Was succeeded by Omar Omar lead community for 10 years Made great many vital military and political decisions Regarded as military genius Expanded influence of Islam militarily, socially in quite significant ways: took Persian Empire through strategizing and during his rei
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