Methods for the study religion; presuppositions of the western. During the age of the enlightenment, there was an increasing concern with wanting to approach phenomena from perspective of reason and rationality rather than faith and belief. 19th century: science with scientific modes of thinking an increasing concern with wanting to approach phenomena from the approach of reason and rationality rather than from perspective of faith and beliefs. Man makes religion, religions does not make man, religion is the self consciousness and self esteem of a man who has either not found himself or has already lost himself again. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature. Has the function of encouraging you to focus on other things, e. g. god and not discontentment: the social principles of christianity preach the necessities of a ruling class on one hand and an oppressed class on the other.