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March 28, 12
- Markers: ENLIGHTENMENT (over „superstition‟ – Voltaire, Rousseau,
- Secularization – process – not over night – features conflict
between secularity and religion.
- SCIENCE (over faith) – science becomes increasingly the source of
authority – scientific principles at work.
- REASON (over dogma) – no more insisting on sacred truths –
- TECHNOLOGY and this-worldly fulfillment (afterlife is remote,
- For the Enlightenment thinkers, traditional religion was a dated
superstition, a product of humanity‟s infancy and ignorance; with
the rise of Science, practical reason and technological progress
would displace or supplant the religious worldview.
- ^Occupies the role to fulfill needs and desires instead of looking for
sacred or supernatural assistance.
- Marx – religion as social alienation
- Freud – religion as illusion, wish-fulfillment.
- Weber – Rationalization – all aspects of life moving to formal
means-ends efficiencies, and Disenchantment – the world is
calculable, manageable through technical-rational means of
organization (bureaucracy), social relations based on law, contract
decline of the supernatural as a regulative framework of
understanding and action…
- ^Modern societies were moving increasingly in the direction of
formal rationality. The need for standardizing arrangements in
- ^Substantive rationality – the outcome is better.
- ^Formal rationality – simply operate according to rules.
- ^Earlier forms of justice is more relevant.
- Sacred scriptures lost sacred aura through critical analysis. –
applied the same thing to the history of Christianity – losing luster.
- ^Scholars began to situate religious traditions in wider contexts –
ex. Noah story synonymous with older stories.
- Robin Horton – historically, there have been two major
aspects/concerns of religious life:
- 1) “manipulation” – i.e. explanation/prediction/control: as
explanatory systems – accounts of why things are the way they
are, how they come about, etc. – religious worldviews offer a
comprehension of reality – i.e., they make a kosmos – and thus
afford us a measure of practical direction/control in our dealings
with the everyday space-time world.
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