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RSM225H1 (70)


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University of Toronto St. George
Rotman Commerce
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

CH.4 MOTIVATION AND VALUES Motivation: processes that cause ppl to behave as they do Drive: degree of arousal of the urgency that the consumer feels to reduce the tension that comes from a discrepancy between the consumer’s present state and some ideal state Drive theory: focus on biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal Expectancy theory: behavior is largely pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes, rather than pushed from within (choose one product over another cuz we expect this choice to have more positive consequences for us) Want: particular form of consumption used to satisfy a need (two hungry ppl may have the same need, but one may want vege the other one may want cheeseburger Types of needs - Biogenic need: necessity to maintain life such as food, water - Psychogenic need: acquired in the process of becoming a member of a culture (status) Motivational conflict - Approach-approach conflict: a person must choose btwn two desirable alternative  Theory of cognitive dissonance: based on the premise that people have a need for order and consistency in their lives and that a state of tension is created when beliefs or behaviors conflict with one another - Approach-avoidance conflict: we desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time (mink coat – guilt, ice cream-calory) - Avoidance-avoidance conflict: btwn two undesirable alternatives Specific needs - Need for affiliation: this need is relevant to products/services that alleviate loneliness and that are consumed among groups of people at places such as bars - Need for power: allowing consumers to feel that they have mastery over their surroundings - Need for uniqueness: this need is satisfied by products that accentuates a consumer’s distinctive qualities Maslow’s hierarchy of needs - Problem  No measurement tool to test the need hierarchy empirically  Cannot measure precisely how well-satisfied one need is before the next higher need becomes operational - Widely applied because it reminds us that the consumers may have different need priorities at different times Consumer involvement - Involvement: a person’s perceived relevance of the object based on their inheren
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