Env100 lect 4.docx

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School of Environment
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Stephen Scharper

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10/4/2012 11:10:00 AM Env100 lect 4 Alannna mitchel- seasick global ocean in crisis Award winning journalist, works for globe and mail Put together data about worlds oceans in light of climate change- in doing this research found bigger picture Stephen put her hood on- doctorate at trin We are going to be ones to make difference-younger Wasn’t about whts wrong with ocean but just fascinated with ocean- then book turned into sickness She wrote lots about environment but realized all wrong once found out about ocean- wanted to know about land iguenas only- Galapagos island story- the n ran into silvia earl famous ocean biologist- nat geo biographer- first person to decide had to go into ocean if she wanted to know- not just grab things out of it and put on table- one of first to go into ocean and look at creatures in their environemtn- invented machine to go under water Terrified her All excited one day cause red tide- triggered by toxic shit- silvia went out and got samples in water bottles Mitchell accidentally drank one w\asked silvia why are you biologist and why focus ocean why no focus on land? – life in ocean is where it is, its all about life in ocean, if you don’t get that you wont get it at this time Mitchell was reporter, nothing to do with ocean, she launched herself into it after finishing first book on atmosphere 1 degree- double specialist – eng literature and latin literature – but lol now shes writing about scientist nancy has taken courses on how to communicate science(to normals) which normally scientist cant do asked nancy to hang around with her- cause that’s what she likes ot do –go on field research and asks them to explain- asks stupid questions – she has drawings from all these scientists- often they thank her- you helped me see big picture she gotlist from nancy about what expeditions she could go on- she ended up going on coral spawning trip- she went to hermaphrodite ones- near panama- reef building montastraia- really endangered- big question if they would even spawn this year… asked nancy when are they gonna spawn? We don’t know! some call her environemtnal reporter but she is science she says corals spit out little bundles and went to top and floated around- how many spawned compare to how mnay there and how many would get to 16 thcell stage- primordial sexual ooze- when humans got in the water it was like bolt of electricity- sexual electiricyt – went through them not a ton of them did spawn and get to stage… it felt like death.. 90 percent of coral in carribean has died in last 30 yrs .. percentage of coral endangered around world- 50 terrible 20 pretty bad- considered to be most likely to go extinct as result of climate change- this was her first journey- she wanted more! Major problems: Ocean acidifcation, warm water- temperature high, water level rising- coral drowning Symbiate- two organisms in a mutually benfefical relationship How does coral work? Symbiant/dependant on photosynthesis- they take the suns energy – if coral animal allow little creatures algae tolive inside their cells- make the coral colour- without algae coral are hungry- coral protects algae too- algae feeds coral- when it gets really hot the algae get spit out of the coral and therefore spit out colour- bleaching- bleached coral is not dead but just very hungry- Water levels- as they rise the photosyntheziers cant phtosyntheiss- below the level – too far under water- caused by heat from fossil fuels Whe we burn fossil fuels – 250 yrs- not really htat long- we’vebeen digging up fossil from millions of yrs ago- we dig them up burn them- we put carbon from them into todays atmosphere- What it does there – carbon dioxide keeps heat against planet instead of letting it go away Allows all this ehat to stay That is heating up with the ocean Something like 80 percent of that extra heat has gone into ocean in last 250 yrs Stil very tiny amount but hugely significant Caron dioxide gas mixes with water- in air co2 in earth- in the ocean carb dioxide its chemically reactive- makes carbonic acid- and changes the ph of global ocean- level of 3000 metres of global ocean has been changed chemically Why do we care? Affects physiology – when ph goes up- some things have huge problems Ust recently discorevered – first paper on this came out in 99 People thought they were crazy – no way the ph doing that Calcium less available- hard to make bones in ocean The evil troika- warmer more acidic less dissolved oxygen in ocean Setting table for next mass extinction If go into paletnology records always 3 things that happened to ocean during these mass extinctions- temp change- warmer, less oxgen, more acidic- All set up- sallow warm and breathless how they put it This is the fear – these trends all going in wrong way.. not even looking at glob climate change.. ocean contains switch of life If everything on land were to die tommorrw what would happen to life in ocean…. Nothing it wuld actuallyget better- we would stop polluting But if ocean died earth would be fucked- we’d die- everything that lives in air is dependant on things that live in water for very survival Oxygen we are breathing comes from plankton- 50 of air atleast- we don’t even know what happens to plankton yet they have shells Ocean aslo controls carbon cycle Much of oxygen cycle To scientist who look at this one thing to affect atmosphere and climate – once we start affecting ocean- whole new deal!! High carbon world- not climate change System of profound planetary disturbance If you look back into palentioligcal records- biggest mass exctinvtion ever- only 5 in whole history of planet Last-dinosaurs Biggest- pernean- 250 yrs ago- call great dying- 90 percent or 95 died- very quickly- precisely what killing mechanism was- by looking at fossil records- only realized in last few yrs- physiologically- 3 things warm breathless sallow- same things- period of intense volcanic activity- Siberian traps being formed tons of carbon went into air today they have done studies looking at pace of omission- carbon based gases into atmosphere- faster- 10 x faster- our lil 7 billion species – 10x more quickly tha during Siberian traps episode that led to great dying great dying over millions of yrs ph scale xponential- there is no way to fix ph issue- worry the most- only thing that fixes this is time how did planet bounce back last time? Took millions of years after 5 massive exctinons- life has rebounded- with more complex creatores- it has been magnificent – what world is like now… it is cause of this… we could just say more interesting complex future willhappen cause of wht we do.. if think phil
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