ENV100H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: Fish Farming, Wild Fisheries, Mariculture

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Published on 15 Jan 2017
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28 Aquaculture
- Broader than fish farming alone
- More different types of organisms involved than farming on land
- Escaped to wild populations
- Where we are raising these organisms is in natural ecosystems
o Embedded
Examples
- Intensive shrimp farming in California
- Can be big or small
- Raising tilapia
o Easy to raise
o Grows quickly
- Big, open enclosures for salmon
- Experimental offshore towed fish cage
Aquaculture
- Includes fish, molluscs, crustaceans, aquatic plants
o 567 species worldwide
- marine (mariculture) or inland
- inland aquaculture is growing faster than marine
o mostly in developing world
- fastest-growing food production sector
- accounts for about 50% of all fish used for food
- fish makes up 17% of global pop intake of animal protein
- per capita fish consumption has doubled since 1960
- fish used for many other non-food uses
World capture fisheries and aquaculture production
- big factors in increase in aquaculture is severe pressure on natural fisheries
- capture production going down
- fishing out the ocean
- severe pressure on natural fisheries
- not enough fish anymore
- increases in aquaculture
What is produced?
- Fish largest proportion
- A lot of other things being produced too
o Aquatic plants
- Increasing amount of fish now produced by aquaculture
- More than 50% of fish in Asia from aquaculture
Aquaculture is a huge economic engine for developing countries
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Fish farming
- Most common form of aquaculture
- Cultivation of fish for commercial purposes in man-made tanks and other terrestrial
enclosures
- Most common types of farmed fish
o Catfish
Bottom feeders and easy to raise
Tolerant of crappy conditions
o Tilapia
Same
o Salmon
o Carp
o Cod
o Trout
Closed pond systems
- Covered to allow for control of light and temp
- Limit predator access
- Usually smaller in scale than open ponds
Mariculture
- Cultivation of marine organisms in the open ocean, an enclosed portion of the ocean, or
tanks or ponds filled with seawater
- Costs and benefits
o if close to shore, less energy intensive
o carbon footprint is high because movement on water more costly than over land
o less pollution issues if away from shore and less wave disturbance
- fish, shellfish, sea plants, corals
o coral as building material
- products are used for cosmetics, jewelry, fish meal
- tuna cages in Tahiti
o fast swimmers
o expensive fish
o huge fish
o not cheap operations to set up
- a tender services the cages twice daily
o energy-intensive
o twice a day to feed fish
o not cheap, not carbon-neutral
Mollusc aquaculture has relatively low impacts because no supplemental food is required
- sedentary
- feed themselves
Aquaculture places high demands on ecosystem services
- shrimp farming usually in estuaries, brackish water
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Document Summary

More different types of organisms involved than farming on land. Where we are raising these organisms is in natural ecosystems: embedded. Raising tilapia: easy to raise, grows quickly. Includes fish, molluscs, crustaceans, aquatic plants: 567 species worldwide. Per capita fish consumption has doubled since 1960 fish used for many other non-food uses. World capture fisheries and aquaculture production capture production going down fishing out the ocean severe pressure on natural fisheries. Big factors in increase in aquaculture is severe pressure on natural fisheries. Not enough fish anymore increases in aquaculture. A lot of other things being produced too: aquatic plants. Increasing amount of fish now produced by aquaculture. More than 50% of fish in asia from aquaculture. Aquaculture is a huge economic engine for developing countries. Cultivation of fish for commercial purposes in man-made tanks and other terrestrial enclosures. Most common types of farmed fish: catfish. Covered to allow for control of light and temp.

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