4.March 11 ENV222 lecture outline.pdf

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Department
School of Environment
Course Code
ENV100H1
Professor
Stephen Scharper

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17) March 11 Current actions: State, domestic: 2 Sustainable development paradigm Dryzek, John S. (2005). “Chapter 7: Environmentally Benign Growth: Sustainable Development.” In The Politics of the Earth: Environmental Discourses. Oxford University Press: New York. pp. 145-161. ▯ Lecture outline ▯ ▯ 1. Definitions . sustainable yield: p. 361-62 – maximum annual extraction from nature, eg a fishery, which allows stock to replenish itself and so can be continued, ie is sustainable ▯ . development: in terms of the global South, primarily industrialization ▯ . but p. 367 the term also has connotations of non-material intellectual, spiritual growth; linked to ▯progress” and so to optimism . sustainable development: p. 361 the famous Brundtland quotation “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” . sustainability: term used by those less comfortable with the “development” part ▯ . discourse: commonly accepted assumptions, concepts; ways of framing a problem and therefore its solution – also functions as a standard for measuring legitimacy ▯ See reading re inherent ambiguity of the term sustainable development – business and environmentalists define it in very different ways. ▯ ▯ 2. The basic logic of sustainable development ▯ p. 365, see top right paragraph for a useful, concise presentation; as such, the concept: . recognizes moral need to address global poverty . but also based in equity “socially just”ironmentally benign” . is grounded in capitalism (p. 366) . is thoroughly anthropocentric (p. 366) ▯ ▯ 3. Historical development of the concept ▯ . origins in 19 c. resource management sustainable yield principle to ensure the resource is not exhausted ▯1 . post-1945 development/industrialization in global South seen to be solution to global poverty; although accompanied by some redistribution of wealth through foreign aid . 1980 IUCN World Conservation Strategy first sets out the concept . 1987 Our Common Future, Brundtland report makes the concept highly visible . 1992 Rio Conference on Environment and Development: the concept was endorsed by world leaders in a highly visible forum . the concept then moved from international to domestic level; eg, in Canada, National Roundtable on Environment and Economy; International Institute for Sustainable Development; Commissioner of Environment and Sustainable Development . quickly adopted by business, governments and, and mainstream environmentalism and becomes the dominant discourse ▯ But: See reader p. 369 discussion of the other dominant discourse – neoliberalism.As previously discussed, this turn to valuing market over state after Reagan and Thatcher is a major impediment for addressing the public-goods problem of environment. Both the discourse of sustainable development in the realm of environment and that of neoliberalism in the realm of economy became dominant in the 1990s. This made it harder to implement the sustainable development elements which contradicted the free-market values of neoliberalism, such as equity and redistribution of wealth recommended by Brundtland. ▯ ▯ 4. Why did sustainable development became the dominant paradigm? ▯ I argue the concept became dominant because it offered something to each of the two main non- state actors, business and environmentalists, and so could easily be also accepted by governments. To understand how, we need to review the evolution of each since the 1960s. ▯ Business . 1960s decline of business legitimacy in eyes of public . under attack for failures to hire minorities/women; occupational health issues; Ralph Nader attack on unsafe products; production of napalm used in Vietnam war; environmental issues; and general anti-establishment rhetoric of the day . David Vogel, Fluctuating Fortunes: The Political Power of Business inAmerica, 1989 argues because economy was doing well business was not needed so much, and so could be attacked without worrying about losing jobs in consequence . 1970s, business began a counter-attack, to influence government and public attitudes . by 1980s, as popular support for environmental protection increased, its environmental image had become a major problem for business . the 1987 Brundtland advocacy of sustainable development endorsed economic growth (which is only possible through business investment) and so offered business an environmental solution it could accept . business had been seen as part of the problem - sustainable development allowed it to be seen as part of the solution ▯2 . business firms played a prominent role in the 1987 Canadian National Task Force on Environment and Economy . 1991 International C
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