10. April 1 14 ENV222 lecture outline.pdf

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School of Environment
Stephen Scharper

23)April 1 New forms of global governance Khagram, Sanjeev (2006). "Possible FutureArchitectures of Global Governance:ATransnational Perspective/Prospective." Global Governance, Vol. 12, pp. 97-117. ▯ Lecture outline ▯ Review - The problem with current environmental governance (March 13 lecture): . global environmental problems cannot be addressed by any one state acting alone; co- operation is needed; . the norm of state sovereignty (states need not recognize any authority as having powers to influence their actions) makes co-operation difficult; . the North-South divide means very different objectives exist; . the current system of global environmental governance suffers two major weaknesses in terms of its ability to facilitate co-operation: 1) multilateral environment agreements (MEAs) have low standards (due to veto power/lowest common denominator process) and cannot be actively enforced; 2) international governmental organizations (IGOs) like UNEP have limited powers and inadequate funding. ▯ 1. The solution ▯ Bear in mind that Khagram is offering both normative and analytical arguments (p. 501 “normative-analytic images”) – telling us which futures he personally prefers (normative) and which he thinks most likely (analytical), based on analysis of current trends. ▯ Khagram suggests six possibilities and then at the end gives his own preference. ▯ 1.1 Multilateralism Continued strengthening of current multilateral global governance system – IGOs (reading uses term interstate organization, IO) embedded in regimes, eg MEAs . states still dominant, but increased voice for civil society . establish international taxation (eg Tobin tax) . greater equality amongst states ▯ 1.2 Grassroots globalism . the radical activist vision, similar to anarchism . decentralization of political authority – states no longer dominant . move from globalized, private production by transnational corporations to localized, community-owned production . social movements much more powerful 1.3 Multiple, co-operative regionalisms . replication of the EU model in other parts of the world, except states are not central actors ▯1 . possible interregional body to provide governance above the levels of regional bodies ▯ 1.4 One world state . would hold military and taxing power – exercise coercive force, like current states . all global citizens vote . would almost certainly be federated; perhaps a federation of regional subnational governments 1.5 Networked governance . multi-level, state and non-state governance . both state and non-state actors co-ordinating their global activities, both outside and within the umbrella of state-led multilateral governance 1.6 Institutional heterarchy . many overlapping forms of state and non-state multi-level governance and government . shared norms such as democracy ▯ Khagram’s argument: . global governance has changed enormously since 1900, no reason to expect will not continue to change; so, any of these six are possible . states may hold a monopoly on coercive force, but they are far from being the only actors exerting influence at the global level . p. 507 civic transnational advocacy, eg Greenpeace; but also conservative forces, eg Christian fundamentalism . p. 508 professional scientific and technical organizations . p. 509 transnational corporations, plus globally organized criminal activity . p. 510 globalization/Americanization of culture . p. 510 movements of peoples across borders ▯ . presents history of emergence of the state as the dominant publicly-funded organizational form: 1900 – 55 states; plus many colonies (empire as form of global governance) 1954 – 154 states; result of decolonization 2000 – 192 states; plus many regions within states which want to become states, e
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