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Karen Ing (49)

Env 200 mar 14 lec 15.docx

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School of Environment
Karen Ing

Env 200 mar 14 lec 15  In situ conservation o Protected areas o Rehabilitate and restore degraded ecosystems o Some species act as an umbrella for protecting habitat and communities o Reasonable easy to raise funds for mega-fauna conservation projects o There is an argument that focusing on habitat protection for megafauna automatically that focusing on habitat protection for megafauna automatically protects habitat for numerous other less charismatic species  Ex: in feb 08, a federal judge reinforced a US fish and Wildlife service decision to designate 8,600, 000 acres in Arizona, Utah, Colorado and new mexico as critical habitat for the owl spotted owl, despite challenges by loggers, cattle ranchers and developers. o In situ-consideration: size, shape, cost, location o None of north america’s big western parks, Banff, jasper, Yellowstone are big enough to guarantee long terms grizzly survival o Trying to create adequate space for speices with large habitat requirements underlies proposals like y2y or a2a o The 60,000 acre Osceola-okefenoke corridor cost 60Mil o If all sections are ever completed this will be the largest corridor system in eastern North America o Significant concerns have been raised as to whether scarce conservation dollars might be better spend on acquiring intact blocks of healthy habitat in more remote locations rather than buying strips of high-priced urban and suburban land  Biodiversity Hotspots o Relatively small areas of land o Contain many endemic species at high risk from human activities o The hotspots concept developed by British ecologist Normal Myers in 1988 o He identifies regions where the threat is greatest to the greatest number f species and allows conversationalist to focus cost-effective efforts there o To qualify as a hotspot a region must support 1,500 endemic plant species (0.5% of global total) and must have lost more than 70% of its original habitat o The 34 biodiversity hotspots contain 50% of all plant species and 42% of all terrestrial vertebrate species in only 2.3 % of the planet’s land area  Importance of Agriculture o Estimated 9 bil ppl by 2050 o Need to feed around 50% more ppl while maintaining integrity of soil, water, ecosystems etc o Over the past half century, ability to produce food grown even more quickly than global pop o But 850 mill ppl in developing countries don’t have enough to eat why?  Political obstacles and inefficient distributions  Food security o Guarantee of an adequate, reliable and available food supply to all ppl at all times  Food production advances-fossil fuels o We have been able to create more food b/c of cheap fossil fuels o Planting and harvesting more frequently o Increase use of irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides o Increase amount of cultivate lands o Develop more productive crops and livestocks o But this cant continue because world’s soil in decline  We have only a number of soils o Also b/c nearly all planets arable land has been claimed o And also shortage of cheap energy/oil  Food price roller coaster o Perfect storm (world food programme)  Volatile oil prices  Increasing demand for meat/diary products  Diversion of land/agricultural produce for biofuels  Extreme weather, especially drought and water shortages o All this is happening even as the world keeps increasing at a huge rate  Nutrition status o Undernour
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