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ENV200H1 (60)
Karen Ing (49)

Env 200 mar 19 lec 16.docx

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School of Environment
Karen Ing

Env 200 march 19 lec 16  Increasing livestock yields o Hormones  Promote faster growth  European union limits imports of hormone-treated beef o Antibiotics  Animals grow larger (4-5%)  Resistant bacteria  World Health Organization wants them eliminated  U.S still using  increasing crop yields o demand for grains will increase o cant increase amount of land o yields can only increase s much o genetic engineering could help (making the crops grow faster) o developing countries will need better farming methods  So we see pressures for: o Corporate farming (efficiencies of scale); more and more ppl to feed o Agricultural practices that improve bottom lines (but end up being ecologically unsustainable over the long-term); more energy used and lots more pesticides o Factory farming o Biotechnology (2 green revolution) (fossil fuel was 1 revolution)  Additionally o If we considered the energy used to grow, store it process package transport refrigerate and cook all plant and animal food (this all takes energy) o It takes about 10 units of non renewable fossil fuel energy are needed to put one unit of food energy on the table  We should shop like Europeans; freshly grown crops and fish etc unlike what we do now which is like going to costco once a week and store up everything and refrigerate it all  ENV concerns associated with agricultural activities o Land degradation  Loss of wildlife habitat and wetlands  Habitat fragmentation  Soil productivity  Erosion  Salinization o Water quality  Bc of input of pesticides and fertilizers as they go into the water o Human and animal health issues o Pesticides and herbicides use  Some species become resistant o Industrialization of agriculture o Increased vulnerability of monocultures (climate change diseases) o Effects of biotech on biodiversity and overall concerns with GMOs o Corporate seed banks and fertilizers/pesticides  Meat production o Meat is an important source of high quality protein o Almost 4 bill cattle, sheep and goats graze on 42% of the world’s rangeland o Per capita met production more than double 19500-2003 and is predicted to double again by 2050 o To meet rising demand feedlots account(farming factories) for 43% of world’s beef production, half of pork production, and ¾ of poultry production  This means that many of our meats does not come from free-range animals on farms, the animals are in factories and are confined into the space producing meat and pork for us  Intensive Livestock operations o Applies to pork, chicken or beef animals o Where more than 300 animal units are confined in facilities at a density of 43 animals unit per acre for more than 90 consecutive days..... o You have to deal with manure on site (biggest issue the workers here have)  They have to get rid of the manure o One 454kg feedlot steer produces around 27 kg of manure daily (from one animal); 9954 kg yearly o A lot of our cows come from Alberta, but they are not freely roaming everywhere there in alley like “feedlot alley”- a small region north lethbridge, Alberta, houses Canada’s largest concentration of livestock around 500,000 cattle, 200,000 hogs and 600,000 poultry. After decomposing for six-eight months, manure can be distributed on field as fertilizer o Since hauling manure beyond 18km is uneconomical, nutrients in the manure seldom go back to the field where the feed grain was produced  Health concerns o Surface and groundwater contamination from manure storage and application (including nitrates, pesticides, bacteria and parasites)  Poultry ILOs add various heavy metals (arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc) to the feed to improve weight gain and disease prevention. Consequence is poultry waste can contain high concentrations of heavy metals o Air quality issues: over 150 gaseous compounds may be emitted when manure is spread on land o Found that ppl living downwind experience more headaches, runny noses, sore throats, diarrhea etc  Environmental concerns of meat production o Manure o Pressure on gr
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