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Lecture 2

ENV200H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Extremophile, Chlorophyll, Thermodynamics


Department
School of Environment
Course Code
ENV200H1
Professor
Romila Verma
Lecture
2

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ENV200 Lecture 2
Energy
the ability to do work (moving matter, heat transfer, etc.)
can take many different forms
Kinetic Energy: movement (rock rolling down hill)
Potential Energy: stored energy that is available for use (water stored in dam)
Chemical Energy (food, gasoline)
Heat, can be transferred between objects at different temperatures
Thermodynamics: transfer of energy
First law of thermodynamics: energy is conserved
2nd law: with each successive energy transfer, less energy is available to do work
(entropy)
Sun is the ultimate energy source for life
Primary producers, green plants that capture energy using sunlight, air, water
(phtosynthesis)
Photosynthesis: occurs in tiny organelles called chloroplasts which reside in plant cells.
Most important key to the process if chlorophyll, a unique green molecule
Animals don’t have chlorophyll
Chemosysthesis: extremophiles that extract energy from inorganic chemical compounds
(tube worms, mussels, deep-sea seep)
Species
Organisms of the same kind that are genetically similar enough to breed and produce
offspring
Population
members of a species living in the same area at the same time
Community
populations of organisms living and interacting with one another
Ecosystem
composed of biological community and physical environment
contains food chains/webs and trophic levels to link species
trophic level is an organism feeding status in an ecosystem
trophic levels create pyramid like shape
top predators are fierce animals
primary producers (autotrophs) feed themselves using sunlight, water, co2, etc.
consumers (heterotrophs) get energy from producers
Parasites, Scavengers and decomposers are recyclers
scavengers clean up dead carcasses
detritivores consume litter, debris, dunk (ants, beetles)
decomposers complete final breakdown of organic molecules (bacteria, fungi)
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