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Lecture

Lecture Note for Jan 25th


Department
School of Environment
Course Code
ENV200H1
Professor
Jack Parkinson

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Human Population Dynamics
Demographics: identified the high Gross National Increase for less developed countries and
developed countries.
Economic indicators to identify less developed countries, other ways to look at quality life issues:
Genuine Progress Indicator.
Human Developed Index: capture quality of life, more then just income such as gender equity.
Different ranking of countries, for example Sweden per capita income ranks higher then U.S.,
quality of life.
The Genuine Progress Indicator: complex measurement, environmental indicators. GPI compared
to the GDP, in the province of Alberta.
Blue line: represent GDP, growing: a lot of oil development, discoveries.
Red line: GPI, decreasing in time in contrast with the GDP, social well being was best in 1961.
If there is a toxic oil spill in Alberta the GDP for the province goes up, because jobs are created,
income. But the environmental impact in the area the lifetime of the fisher men, lifestyle decline.
Demographic Transition: moving fr om high death rates to a place we had low birth rates and
death rates.
Pre-industrial: before large industries come in, infant mortality seems to be high, and death rates
because of the social conditions. The population doesnt grow very rapidly.
Transitional: lower death rate, more reliable food supply, birth rate is still high. Birth rates are
higher then our death rates, more people in our population, growing rapidly.
Industrial: factories are coming, high urbanization, decline in birth rate as we still continue with a
low death rate because the food security should be maintained. Slight increases in population.
Post-industrial: people want smaller families now, population grow is very low. Birth rate is lower
then the industrial area, and low death rates because improvements in our health care system.
Now experiencing much more limited in natural resources.
Impacts on the National Demographic Transition chart: Most countries Brazil, China countries
that are in the less develop stage. Dramatic decreases in their fertility rate.
Age Structure: number of individuals in an age group, can help us identify what the future
population is about. Pyramid shape means rapid growth.
Nigeria: high fertility rate but relatively high death rates.
United States: slow growth, birth rates are not that high compared to the rest of the population,
big bulge: baby boomers.
Germany: decline in populat i on, low birth rates.
Future Population Growth: look at the base and show how much the population will grow.
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