Jan 28 14 ENV222 lecture notes.pdf

3 Pages
161 Views
Unlock Document

Department
School of Environment
Course
ENV221H1
Professor
Geoffrey Mac Donald
Semester
Winter

Description
7) Jan. 28 Causes (and solution): The empirical method Draper, Dianne and Maureen G. Reid (2009). extract from “Chapter 2, Environmental Studies: Science, Worldviews and Ethics.” Our Environment:ACanadian Perspective. Toronto: Nelson Education. pp. 35-42. ! York, Richard (2009). "Chapter 7: The Science of Nature and the Nature of Science." In Kenneth A. Gould and Tammy L. Lewis, eds. Twenty Lessons in Environmental Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 85 – 94 ! ! . coda to Jan 23 capitalism lecture; re individualism; I am not suggesting we abandon our values respecting individual liberty and human rights; instead, I am saying those values add to the challenge of environmental protection, particularly as they underpin capitalism; thus we need to keep those values, while moving society to collectively deal with public goods problems . that is very difficult, particularly since as discussed we cannot simply turn the whole task over to the state ! Lecture notes ! 1. Defining science . empirical method: from Draper and Reid . observation, using five senses (not from texts, Bacon p. 123) . rigour . use of inductive (data first, then theory) and deductive (test theory by getting data) means to develop theory, generalization . lack of absolutes, final truths: only hypotheses not yet disproven . limited to the analytical argument; cannot make prescriptive ! . environmental science devoted to understanding human impact upon nonhuman ! . distinct from environmental social science (eg, York, "environmental sociology") and environmental humanities (eg, study of nature in literature; philosophy study of environmental ethics) ! ! 2. Science and values . science can study values empirically, but cannot answer values-based questions such as these; how much should we protect environment? how should we distribute the cost of environment; see questions posed by York, p. 126 and his comment that science is “mute” with regard to such value-based questions. ! But the environmental problem and its solution is a mix of fact and value, which muddies the role of science in the dialogue. !1 Plus, see York’s argument p. 126-27 that science is inherently influenced by values, because it is dependent upon the powerful for funding – what they consider important is what tends to get studied by science. ! 3. Historical development of scientific method . part of the European transition from feudalism . by time of Sir Isaac Newton, late 1600s-early 1700s empirical method was established . as such, it emerged with both capitalism and the industrial revolution and is connected to both, primarily because economic expansion provided the funding needed for science . major development then in the 19 c. university . 20 c. ex
More Less

Related notes for ENV221H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit