Jan 15

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School of Environment
Simon Appolloni

Jan 15 rd Role of plankton – Every 3 CO2 molecule humans exhale, go into ocean. Plankton absorbs CO2. They create oxygen, half the total produced by all plants. Too much CO2 coming in, warming up the sea. Dying. Go down to bottom and take carbon with them…which is a good thing. Coral – Peter Sale – Coral bleaching…living organisms in shallow water in warmer climates. Zooxanthellae – single celled plants found in plankton. Relationship with coral reefs. Corals give protection for photosynthesis to Z. Z gives food due to photosynthesis to coral. Coral = +nutrients to secrete the calcium skeleton Corals stop giving nutrients to Z due to bleaching, Z helps form the coral but unable to do that and no photosynthesis so corals bleach. Corals die. Example B – Z says I will produce photosynthesis and the nutrients I get out of it I will share with you as long as you give me some nutrients. Unable to produce, coral cannot give their end of the bargain. Coral bleaching, death Canary in the ocean. – Very susceptible to change. - Vocabulary Anthropocene Holocene Anthropocentric Anthropogenic Carbon sink - What would Jesus buy? 9 Planetary Boundaries Boundary - Safe distance from a threshold Threshold – non-linear (cause and effect is unpredictable) transitions (if x happens y may or not happen) Albedo – sheet ice reflecting the sun. Albedo effect = lower albedo = more sun radiation aka rise in Earth’s temperature More albedo = cooler temperature Earth system – integrated biophysical and interactions among Atmo (air) Hydro (water), Cry (ice), geo (land), anthropo (human) determining the environmental state Positive effect/feedback – Humans intensifies the albedo - Less ice = more heat Negative effect/feedback – Lessens the effect. Burn fossil fuels, car running sends vapor/co2 into sky, form clouds – Clouds act as reflection of sun rays Driving more = making the Earth cooler We play by rules of planet Myriad of pathways – line drawn in sand Cross the boundary = downhill TABLE Alanna Mitchell, Peter Sale Ocean Acidification – Carbon is saturated within the ocean Threshold = Coral reefs bleaching, algae growing, chemical responsible for creation of shells (calcium) aragonite Ocean is unable to absorb excess carbon which stays in atmosphere (greenhouse) Planetary boundary – pre-industrial sustainability Earth warmed to avg 14 degree Celsius.*** ENERGY EXCHANGE between space and atmosphere - Heat goes up, small portion
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