Role of plankton – Every 3 CO2 molecule humans exhale, go into ocean.
Plankton absorbs CO2. They create oxygen, half the total produced by all plants.
Too much CO2 coming in, warming up the sea. Dying. Go down to bottom and take carbon with
them…which is a good thing.
Coral – Peter Sale – Coral bleaching…living organisms in shallow water in warmer climates.
Zooxanthellae – single celled plants found in plankton.
Relationship with coral reefs.
Corals give protection for photosynthesis to Z.
Z gives food due to photosynthesis to coral.
Coral = +nutrients to secrete the calcium skeleton
Corals stop giving nutrients to Z due to bleaching,
Z helps form the coral but unable to do that and no photosynthesis so corals bleach.
Example B – Z says I will produce photosynthesis and the nutrients I get out of it I will share with you as
long as you give me some nutrients. Unable to produce, coral cannot give their end of the bargain. Coral
Canary in the ocean. – Very susceptible to change.
- What would Jesus buy?
9 Planetary Boundaries
Boundary - Safe distance from a threshold
Threshold – non-linear (cause and effect is unpredictable) transitions
(if x happens y may or not happen)
Albedo – sheet ice reflecting the sun.
Albedo effect = lower albedo = more sun radiation aka rise in Earth’s temperature
More albedo = cooler temperature Earth system – integrated biophysical and interactions among
Atmo (air) Hydro (water), Cry (ice), geo (land), anthropo (human)
determining the environmental state
Positive effect/feedback – Humans intensifies the albedo - Less ice = more heat
Negative effect/feedback – Lessens the effect. Burn fossil fuels, car running
sends vapor/co2 into sky, form clouds – Clouds act as reflection of sun rays
Driving more = making the Earth cooler
We play by rules of planet
Myriad of pathways – line drawn in sand
Cross the boundary = downhill
Alanna Mitchell, Peter Sale
Ocean Acidification – Carbon is saturated within the ocean
Threshold = Coral reefs bleaching, algae growing, chemical responsible for creation of shells (calcium)
Ocean is unable to absorb excess carbon which stays in atmosphere (greenhouse)
Planetary boundary – pre-industrial sustainability
Earth warmed to avg 14 degree Celsius.***
ENERGY EXCHANGE between space and atmosphere -
Heat goes up, small portion