Lecture: Jan24

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University of Toronto St. George
School of Environment
Geoffrey Mac Donald

ENV222 Jan 24 Population growthLecture format1 The phenomenon of population growthpopulation growth or decline determined by ratio of birth to death ratesglobal population generally stable until Industrial Revolution of 18th c then rapid increase now at 7 billion likely to add another billion in next 12 years at current rate will double in 54 years to be 14 billion by 2064however global trend is toward declining fertility ratespopulations in industrialized nations have stabilized or are falling growth is occurring in Southern nations in particular Africandeath rates are influenced by scientific knowledge technology and public policy in areas of sanitation food supply medicine and disease controlbirth rates are influenced by cultural attitudes toward having children and in particular to womens control of their reproduction which is tied to education and financial statuspopulation in any given region is also influenced by immigration into the region and emigration out Ontario Greater Toronto Area GTA as a highimmigration highpopulation growth region and associated environmental impacts urban sprawl landuse biodiversity impacts transportation energyuse impactsbut population growth per se is not treated as a problem in the policy discourse but instead a benefit since associated with economic growth2 Population as cause of the environmental problemthreat to supply of global food and waterneed for increased food supply means increased conversion of land to agricultural use with c
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