Feb 28 ENV222 lecture format.doc.docx

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School of Environment
Kenneth Mac Donald

ENV222 Feb. 28, 2012 Civil society - environmentalism Lecture format 1. Overview of Part 3 . definitions (review): civil society, state and market . interconnections amongst the three . basic issue throughout: factors limiting ability to protect environment 2. Suggestions for Analytical Paper 2 due March 13 3. Definition of environmentalism . "both ideology and action" (Harper p. 219) . social movement: loosely organized group of people sharing same values and goals; different from organization, since not same degree of internal control; Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (eg, Greenpeace) are located in the social movement, but are very different because they are organizations and do not suffer the political weakness that comes with lack of organization . basic categories: . mainstream (largely anthropocentric), organized by issue . public health – toxics, infectious disease, food issues . resource and energy conservation . radical (largely biocentric) . wilderness preservation . animal rights . deep ecology . social ecology 4. The relationship of environmentalism to traditional politics . distinct from both right (conservative) and left (liberal, socialist), but more aligned with left . role of Green Parties 5. Chronology (see Harper chronology p. 221) 1824 Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, UK 1854 Thoreau, Walden 1863 Natural History Society of Ottawa Commons, Footpaths, and Open Spaces Preservation Society, UK 1864 George Perkins Marsh, Man and Nature: Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action 1 1892 Sierra Club, US 1887 Government of Canada creates Banff Springs national park late 19th c. environmental health becomes an issue in European and North American cities, in terms of drinking water and local air pollution; municipalities establish regulatory bodies and provide sewage and treated drinking water services reader p. 223 emergence of concern for resource conservation, in terms of wildlife, forestry and park creation 1920s science of ecology emerges, looking at ecosystem function as a whole; concept of wildlife management 1946 International Union for Conservation of Nature, led to creation of World Wildlife Fund 1948 Fairfield Osborn, Our Plundered Planet, population issue 1949 Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac, normative concept of "land health" coupled with legitimacy given by science 1950s air pollution issue; eg London smog, 1952 many deaths; concerns over above- ground nuclear testing 1962 Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, pesticides 1960s era of social dissent, driven by opposition to Vietnam War; politiciza
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