Jan 31 ENV222 lecture format.doc.docx

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School of Environment
Kenneth Mac Donald

ENV222 Jan. 31 Science Note: . we need to complete the capitalism lecture from Jan. 26 . at 1:30 pm Prof. Sandy Welsh, Special Advisor to the Dean of Arts and Science is scheduled to speak to the class about the Final Report of the Working Group on Environment, Resources and Related Programs . so, we may not complete the science lecture; in that case it will be completed at the Feb. 2 lecture; we will complete Technology that same day, and so be caught up Lecture format 1. Definition of science – readers pp. 94-97, science consists of both: . the empirical method; . the ways in which science is funded and organized. 2. Empirical method . data obtained from the senses . uses reductionism to focus on a limited number of variables . uses experimentation to attempt to understand causal relations amongst variables . both inductive (data first, then theory) and deductive (theory first, test with data) . uses peer review to achieve scientific consensus by weeding out weak analysis . no final truths, only not yet unproven hypotheses . cannot speak to values; reader p. 96 “is mute with regard to the second” 3. “Establishment of science” – reader p. 96 . curiosity-driven v. applied science, interconnection between them . applied - funding by governments to develop weapons, corporations to develop products . objectivity is the goal, but social context inevitably has an influence upon science . science is sometimes used today in environmental policy in conjunction with other forms of knowledge, such as aboriginal or local knowledge in resource management (eg, Newfoundland cod fishery or Arctic polar bear hunt) – concept of “democratization” of science, reader p. 100, giving non-elites access to science used in decision-making 4. Science as a source of legitimacy . legitimacy is essential to the exercise of social, economic or political power; eg, today we willing consent to be governed by democratically elected governments, because that is now seen as the only legitimate way to gain political power . traditionally, religion
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