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University of Toronto St. George
School of Environment
Paul Muldoon

Last Week: Technology based Standards  Set the best standard of what the technology can do  Today’s Ontario’s Standards 1. Base on Technological feasibility but not environmental protection 2. They are design to review periodically 3. Discharge amount is based on unit production, xL/X, production based standards are criticized because there is no flexibility in the economy; the higher rate of production, the more you release  more robust economy  600 facilities discharge directly to the river  12, 000-16, 000 discharge to sewers, which connected to the sanitary sewer o Controversy issue o Sewer has no control with what is coming in, and they are not design for the industrial system o Sewage system managed by municipal – bylaws, not provincial  Sewer use by-law: what stuff can go into the sewer  Municipality had to meet provincial standards at the plant  Small plants and do not have the technology to deal with the sewage  MISA  Province decided not to intervene sewer by-law  Model Sewer by-law: Hope every municipality adopted but only few did that, because municipality do not want to burden industry and discourage industry coming in  Municipality today in charge of sewer discharge, and have different standard  Toronto is one of the most sophisticated o Buried VS Burned the disposals o Mostly sewage system was built before 1800, direct discharge during heavy rainfall  Sunshine beach – retention tank, when the sewage level back to normal, they are re-directed back to sewage plant  Spout disconnected program to a permeable surface  True cost of water – enormous fight Ambient Standards (Concentration based standards – based on what the ecology mean)  Ontario Water Quality Objectives – when a person applied an approval to discharge something in to the water, technological standards would first to be imposed. The amount of pollutant (Ambient standards) has then to be checked  When you discharge your sewage, the goal is to ensure the concentration of the chemicals of the receiving water is no more than the concentration of Ontario Water  How do you get to the numbers?  Ideally base on no negatively effect on the organism, current understanding of chemicals are limited, generally derived from short term testacy data o Put in a dose and see if the fish died or not o Controversy: what are the other factors that you need to include to test for o Small doses over a very long time – fish didn’t die but they have tummar (deformities issues, chronic but sub-lethal), and affect the hormone system (endocrine discruptors) o Controversy: Numbers for the uncertainty substances, as soon as there is enough studies to support a ban of a substance o The impact on children behaviour o How the number apply: Application factor: fast flowing river (quickly diluted)  What aquatic life you tests?  New Air Regulations – air quality objectives o Contingent. The first public building the pollutant reach. Risk Assessment 1. Hazard Identification – what is the intrinsic issue for the substance? Bioaccumulation? Hazards?
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