SLA200H1 January 16 Lecture 2.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Slavic Languages and Literatures
Pia Paivio

SLA200H1 January 16, 2012 th 19 century Finland -Located in Northern Europe -Long State between Sweden and Russia -Until 1809 was considered Eastern part of Sweden -Sweden lost war in 1809 to Russia -Finland became Grand Duchy of Russia -This was a lucky strike -Possibility of independence would have been much harder under Sweden -The folk/people spoke Finnish -The upper class spoke Swedish -When annexed to Russia, Russian was supposed to become the official language, but never did (social institutions were already established) -Fenomens (promoting Finnish) saw a hole and began promoting the language on higher scales Aurora Society -A secret society in Turku (the former capital of Finland) -Operated from 1770-1779 -It was an organized nationalist historical-literary society, with an interest in music -Founder was Henrik Gabriel Porthan -He was a professor at the Royal Academy of Turku -He was a historian with an interest in Mythology and folk poetry -He was also a librarian -De Poesi Fennica 1776-1778 -was the „Father of Finnish History‟ -Aurora society disappeared in 1779 and Porthan died -However, his students & students of students picked up where he left and started up the Turku Romantics society -1809 Finland was the autonomous Grand Duchy -Ambitions to create an indigenous Finish culture The Turku Romantics -Had the publications of Aura, Mnemosyne albums of folk poetry -Swedish was the language of he newspaper -Turun Wiikkosanomat- “Weekly Finnish language newspaper” spread folk culture and language The Figures -Arwidsson, Gottlund, Juteini, Framen -Importance of national awareness -Arwidsson was a nationalist too early -Lost his job at the university of Turku and was forced to leave because of inspiring rebellion against Russians -creation of self-sustaining culture, history, language, arts (all that was needed to claim that you have a nation) Arwidsson‟s Slogan: “Swedes we are not anymore, Russians we are not going to be, and let us be Finns” How? -Collect folk poetry (Gottlund) -Write a grammar book (1824) and dictionary (1787, 1864-1880) Were no longer ashamed of their distinct language -Publish newspapers, poetry, plays THIS WAS MOSTLY DONE IN SWEDISH -Axel Haartman ,1908, Formed the Saturday Society -Turku burned down, university and library -Russians changed the capital to Helsinki because it was closer to St. Petersburg (easier to control, more convenient) -opened a new university in Helsinki -New secret society -Tried to look for the heroic past of Finland in folklore -Finnish Literature Society of 1831 formed was the best accomplishment Saturday Society Agenda -Cultivation of a national identity became a veritable truth Johan Vilhelm Snellman -Was a philosopher, journalist, and politician -Follower of Herder‟s idea of “a nation could exist only if it possessed a distinctive cultural identity founded on the language and oral literature of the ordinary people” -1863, Finnish becomes the official language of Finland besides Swedish. Finnish began to be taught in schools -1863, Finnish currency is introduced, the markka -1869, Finnish army is formed -all this contributes to developing a distinct identity Johan Ludvig Runeberg -1804-1877 -Nationalist poet (in Swedish) -Moved in the Finnish countryside, idyllic descriptions of Middle Finland;s nature and country life and people -The tales of Ensign Stal 1-11 (Finland‟s War 1808-1809) -“Our Land” (later became the national anthem) -romanticized poetry-created heroes to show upper Swedish classes the beauty of Finnish folklore -romanticized history (created it) Sven Duva -Hero fights against Russian, dies heroically -Force is there, it is apparent, but intelligence and wisdom is not (this is characterizin
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