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SOC205H1 Lecture Notes - Africville, Gentrification, System On A Chip

Course Code
Lesley Kenny

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Race/ethnicity and place
Patterns of immigration
Segregation, enclaves & ghettoes
Where u live determine your future: health conditions, judged base on neighbourhoods social
networking (connections), social hierarchy
Africville, near Halifax Nova Scotia
Move the black settlements out because their housing conditions, slums, substandard,
no pavement, yet they pay taxes
Displacement to white substandard housing (going to be demolished)
Seaview Memorial Park
Chicago 2000: remain one of the most segregated city in the states
Gentrification: small groups of white in black communities
In downtown area: few minorities live there established white wealthy neighbourhood
American Apartheid (Segregation and the Making of Underclass)
o Massey and Denton
o Black compare to white: why such segregation
The Chicago School
Saw the ghettos as a stage in the immigration process
Ghetto enclave suburbs
i.e. considered this movement inevitable
In terms of race & urban soc, Chicago School SOCs were “sympathetic” to the issues, but
didn’t understand how deeply rotted the problems
Massey and Denton
Are people segregated because they are poor?
Or does segregation lead to poverty?
Massey and Deton argued that segregation is basic cause of poverty &
That seg has created black ghettos
These create & maintain a black underclass
By limiting the education and emp. opps for the residents of these neighbourhoods
African Americans and “White Flight”
If Af. Ams do try to leave the ghetto face a variety of discrimination techniques
Individual & institution levels
Told that lots in the white areas are sold or quoted inflated prices
More likely to be rejected by bankers for home loans
Often subjected to intimidation by white neighbours
White flight:
o Fearing a loss of property values & increased crime, whites flee to suburbs and
different towns
o This deceases the tax base and causes proves of ghettoization to begin again
Neighbourhood cards shown to white respondents
White: Scenario 2 - 80%
Blacks: Scenario 4 - 50%
Race or Class reason?
“Racial Diversity, Minority Concentration, and Trust in Canadian Urban Neighbourhoods” Feng
and Wu
Trust: often a degree of integration- crime, employment
o No children alone anymore
Racial Diversity
The extent of mixing of multiple racial groups in a local environment & the demographic
potential of multi-group contact
Racial Minority Concentration
2-dimenstional: focuses on the relative local dominance of racial minorities and the
majority groups (whites)
Trusts: results: (p.706)
In the white population, exposure to racial minorities has a positive effect on trust in
neighbourhoods where
The whites remains dominant &
The minority neighbours are relatively evenly distributed across multiple racial
categories rather than concentrated in only one or 2 groups
Policy implications?
o Immigration policy
“Does Spatial Concentration…”
Research Q: Is it possible for an immigrant grp to integrate into the receiving society
while being residentially concentrated
Case study of Bangladeshi immigrants in Toronto
Definition of “integration”?
“The extent to which immigrants are able to achieve their needs and fulfil their interests
in the new country
How would you measure that?
Functional vs. civic integration
o Functional: occupation, everyday language
o Civic Integration: voting, civic duties, volunteer
The experiences of TO’s immigration groups are highly variable
Depends on when they came, and where they came from and CDN immig policy at time
CA 20% immigrants
Settle in TO (70%), Montreal and Vancouver
TO has what % foreign-born?
o About 50% now
2nd only to in terms of foreign born?
o Miami
Segregation: CA btwn Europe/ Aust (lower) and US (higher)
Ethnic immigrants not doing well in TO’s “inner suburbs”
o Inner suburbs: East York (post WWII houses)
Widespread gentrification limits affordable housing to newcomers
Many must move to outer suburbs, “ethnoburbs”
Chain migration
Process where new immigrants follow previous immigrants from same
Previous immigrants provide ready-made networks for housing, work, finances
E.g., 1945 1980, Italians, Portuguese, Greeks
Many worked in construction
By 2001, had achieved high levels of home ownership
1991 2006
Now less than 15% of immigrants from Europe
After 1980, wider spectrum of immigration classes
Business and entrepreneurs with $$, and those sponsored by relatives