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SOC205H1 Lecture Notes - Social Economy, Cappuccino, Beer In Canada

Course Code
Lesley Kenny

of 3
Heat Wave - Chicago
Natural disaster
Particular group died the most poor, elderly, black, men, single
Why those people? Can’t afford A/C, elderly nobody looking out for them. Men do
not socialize as much as women
Why don’t the men get out to seek for help? Never had the information access to
them; Fear afraid to leave their homes to go to a centre place, social belonging
The social production of space
People from hierarchy determine how space would be.
Seemingly neutral place that is not socially produced sidewalk
o Identify where we are supposed to walk
o Who is behind it, who decided to build a sidewalk government?
o Social Control walk this way and don’t walk in the middle of the street
o Social order safety
o You are not in a rural area because there is a sidewalk
o Loads of transportation pedestrian only
o How did the sidewalk get there? Construction made by people/workers-
engineers behind climate/weather concerns : less slippery
o High social economy status neighbourhood grass looks managed and clean;
in low social economy status neighbourhood probably does not look as nice
The Symbolic Economy (Sharon Zukin)
“the intertwining of cultural symbols and entrepreneurial capital
o maple leaps Toronto
o Canadian beer
Tourism, media and entertainment
o Purposed casino
Cities are packaged and marketed
o SARS- hotels marketed torontoians to get the market back
The visual means by which groups are in/excluded from public/private spaces
Urban design, architecture, ads (signs)
“Those who create images stamp a collective identity” (Zukin, 1995)
Combine this with:
o Global, neoliberal politics
Globalization from previous notes
o Refers to economies
o World is becoming more like American since the coporations are from US
o Increasingly:
Powerful transnat’l corps &
The dominance and influence of Western overseers such as the IMF
and the World Bank
Affect urban policies
City politics are increasingly run on a business model
What does “neoliberal: mean?
o The “market: capitalism determines economics and social policy….
The Commodification of City Space
o In the 20th C, not just things, but now also spaces and places are marketed
for sale
o “quality of urban life has become a commodity, as has the city itself
(Harvey, p.31)
o to be “urban” or “urbane” is to be associated with a higher SES
o pacficiation by cappuccino- Sharon Zukin sold by an ideal of a lifestyle
o Shop til you drop!
o The 2-th C shift from manuf to service-based “flexible’ economies has
radically altered the social, political and economc landscapes of cities.
o Changes in global economic processes, result in changes in urban politics.
The Right to the City David Harvey
o “We live in a world in which the rights of private property and the profit
rate trump all other notions of rights.” (p.23)
o idea: much more than individual access to urban resources
o it is a right to change ourselves by changing the city
o a common (vs individual) right
o the transformation requires a collective power to reshape processes of
o “increasingly, we see the right to the city falling into the hands of private or
quasi-private interests.
o In NY, the billionaire mayor, Michael Bloomberg, is a reshaping the city
along lines favourable to developers, Wall Street and transnational
capitalist-class elements.
o Selling/marketing the city is about image, “lifestyle:
o So what is not so pretty must be covered over or covered up or swept away
(e.g. Africville)
o Examples from olympics, etc.
o Where we used to live and work and gather together in public spaces, now
there are malls and mega malls where ….
o Elabs the ways that capitalism always seeking new territory & raw materials
Always inventing….
Your postal code IS your Lifestyle
Move to the (literal) Margins
Poverty moved from centre to edges of city
In 1970s, city’s low-income families lived in inner city
Had good access to transit and service
These neighbourhood now “gentrified” and home to the margins
The language of poverty…..”slum”
Housing area that *used to* be decent, even desirable, but now decaying etc.
Based on socio-economic criteria (I.e. not nec based on race/ethnicity)
Shantytowns, or Settlements
Were never permanent nor desirable
Physically unsteady structures
No proper sewage system
o Defining thing about an urbanized area
no reliable source of clean water
extremely high rates of unemployment
Differs by country
Barrio used neg. in US, also Venezuela & Dominican Republic
Ghetto N. America (shared ethnicity)
Favelas Brazil
Skid row mainly US
World Slum Growth 1990 2001 an increase of 220M people
Countries with the most increase: china, Nigeria, India
Dharavi, probably the world’s largest “slum”: 239 hectares, 85 neighbourhoods
o Sewage system has to displace all the people
o The land that it sits on is estimated to be worth….suburbia area between CBA
o 2 billion US!!!!!
Harvey argues: efforts to clear this land are masked in environmental and social reasons
Really just a land grab, making forcible slum clearance
And yet…
It is home to many businesses
Many of these are connected to multinational corporations
Estimated annual sales from Dharavi?
o 5 hundred million US
The right to the City David Harvey… Next lecture