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Lecture 10

SOC212 Lecture 10.docx

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Candace Kruttschnitt

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SOC212: Lecture 10 11/21/2012 1:07:00 PM Cont… from Last Lecture Routine Activity Theory perspective: -Randomly designed experiments to see if we can reduce crime given location -Youthful offenders found that some models of Chrysler cars (built in 90’s) that were particularly easy to steal  boom in motor vehicle theft  Policy: electronic mobilizer to prevent crime (stealing without keys) The Hotspot research (David Weisbard and Larry Sherman)  looks at effects of if we really concentrate police in a particular area, can we reduce crime in that area  hypothesized that if we increase police presence in high crime areas then we can reduce crime. IN Mineeopolis found that 5% of the locations in the city were responsible for 64% of crimes in the city (or calls to the police) what happens if we increase guardianship in these areas.  They took 110 hotposts and split them into groups of 55. The experimental group got twice as much police attention than control. Results indicated that crime was reduced in the areas with more police. Don’t know if it’s a permanent displacement or temporary displacement. (Do they stop, or do they move, do they come back?) -Examples of policies: Ie. Airport after 9/11, simple examples: automatic lights outside house, surveillance cameras Assume that all offenders are rational actors Lecture 10: Conflict and Radical Theory: -Crime and delinquency is the product of a perpetual past struggle in which really the ruling developments of capitalist societies 1 define what criminal behavior is 2 Create conditions conductive of crime 3 Devise machinery for control’ -Text talks about a number of social events happening. There were a number of prolems appearing int hat period of time People were really disillusioned about government, status quo -War in Vietnam, escalating arms race (increasing crime rate) -Borrowed heavily from conflict and Marxist approaches Grand Theory: Consensus and Conflict: -(Marx was conflict) -Consensus all parts of society are never fully integrated, but they’re working for a state of equilibrium. If change occurs, it’s more likely to occur in a gradual fashion (rather in a revolutionary or violent way) -What makes consensus possible ist hat there is a general agreement on policing, etc. (world values are widely shared) -Someone who becomes a criminal is somewhat different from a law abiding person (might have learned sub-culture  Sutherland) *Really everything we learned about, could be consensus theory -They’re not questioning the underlying assumption. Just that he criminal is different. (All consensus ) While the conflict framework is less on mutual agreement, the importance of social change and the exercise of power by a limited number of individuals (looka t who has the power to make decisions0 They assume that society isn’t held together by consensus but by constraint -Certain values enforced by dominant power group, rather than members of society as a whole. -Social values is maintained by ruling class (it’s in the interest of the ruling class to define as criminal, and in the interest of ruling class to not persecute white collar crimes, but focus more on street crime, even if white collar crimes can be more damaging) -Distribution of power in society, the process in which laws are written, and the label of criminal or delinquent is selectively chosen. Consensus Conflict Stability Change Well integrated Dissension conflict Deviants all have function Elements contribute to change Value Consensus Consensus from coercion -Marxist Theory  people who didn’t have power constantly struggling against those who do. We move from slavery feudalism capitalism -larger and larger masses of people (workers, etc.) were really existing in dehumanizing conditions  Marx would say look at those sweatshops where workers are hired for such small wages  Workers were seen as commodities  As a result, human dignity was sacrificed for the bourgeoisie interest in accumulating more wealth Instrumental Marxist and Structural Marxist: Instrumental Marxist: -The idea is to control the poor -People would be interested in comparing crime rates of lower class, the down and out with people who are in elite positions -Police act more forcefully where class conflict operates under the assumption that we need more control to maintain order -Criminal justice system is really quick to take action when a white, middle class woman is victimized. Not when a lower class or minority woman is n  The missing Aboriginal women the police haven’t done anything  The criminal justice system very selectively chooses who they’re going to invest more time and energy in Structural Marxist: -Looks at criminal laws  to ensure the long term interest in capitalist Problems with Conflict Theory: -Example: G20 Conference  To protect those in power -Variations within class are not explained very well -Example: Switzerland (super duper capitalist society, low crime rate) same with Japan -Downes and Rock  Important criticism emerged from a certain group of people who felt left out (Feminists)  Drew attention to the fact that victimization of women is ignored by major theories Developments in Feminist Theory: nd 2 wave feminism: -Real turning point  women can commit crime too, women get victimized a lot -Feminists generally assume that gender inequality exists in society  we need to address that inequality.  differ in their views about where this equality is located and what should be do
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