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Lecture

SOC312 MARCH 14.docx


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC312H1
Professor
Brent Berry

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SOC312 MARCH 14, 2012
FERTILITY CONTD
Theories of fertility change
- Number of theories many disciplines involved in demograpgy, anthro, econ, social psyhc, and
others why fertility changes
- Beckers theory
- Easterlins cyclical theory
Contd
- Beckers
- Econ and sociologists best kniwn as econ made contrib. to soc
- Basic idea to what contributed to decline in more indistrulized why few children
- Econ concepts
- Utility cost and benefits, indi calc of concous choice
- Parents not translate rising income to more income, income increase use it to have more
children
- More investment in quality of children
- General desirfe most desireable item,
- Budgetary constraints and time which is for children how much time to give to childerent
- Other rstrtaints leisure that compete for time time is very limited compared to financial budget
to answer fertility
- Schematic fiure 6.6
- Conceieved variables what leads to fertility declines
- Rising cost of chidleren to parents, affordability for quality aspirations
- Child centric society, compulsory edu, children more likely to survive
- Change calculation in how many children they want
- Rising parent quality aspirtations for their children increases cost dramatically best schools
many children less resources per child
Easterlin
- Brings dif perspective explaining booms and bust in fertility in 20th centure
- Like becker econ
- Focused fertility study on US and applied to industrial countries
- Ww2 birth rates rose unexplanatory followed by decline
- US and Canada surge 2 decased 46-60 and protacted baby bust fertility declines characterisitic
of high income countries tody
- Peak birth rates occurred differtn times 1959 for canda
- Fertility plumated
- Explain changes in dramatic changes in fertility rates

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- Figure 6.7
- Schematic rep of easterlins theory of fertility in industrial countries
- Low fertility dep, boom, 1960 on baby bust
- Finer changes the echo generations children of baby boomers
- Larger fertility changes and patterns broad
- Relative cohort size
- Socialiazation of cohorts, how we are primed to what to think and achieve in life
- Proportion of young workers to older
- Desired standards of living are what the experience during child hood
- Good lifes have higher standard of living like they experience younger
- In econ hardship constrain be different, more modest standards
- Hypotheises actualize material aspirations
- Post war boom was gen fo 60s socialization took place during depression bad econ, social values
shaped to strong family norms, and these people from 30s develop strong family aspirations
- A lot of growth and demand for wokers
- Plentiful jobs
- Prosperpurs econ, for baby boom for 20 years socialized for prosperous socioeconomic setting
reduced demand for children
- 80s influx of people in to market of baby boom many of them decline of income few opp rising
levels of econ security and strong motivation for fertility control
- Led to baby bust
- Cyclical theory boom, bust, fertility like econ bc of supply and demad and relative cohort sizes
over time
- Misses many factors but does good job explaining in Canada
Butz counter cyclical
- Different tact, same ideas of becker but different variables
- Challenges easterlin to higher fertility levels
- Important limitations
- Changing role of staus in women in 60s there indepennce
- Figure 6 8
- Fertility household income, income growth, rising income alone not enough who benefiting and
what are the trade offs,
- How read chart like this as econ growth increase male income, increase female labor forice and
this increase number of things women opp cost for child bearing alt roles
- Sexual revolution
- Extent of alternative roles
- Complex relations female income up increase household not bring up fertility, bc high female
income increase cost for childbearing
- Dramatic changes in gender and women and worker
- Gender largest area and important
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- Gender important for fertility change
Sociological theories
- Second demo transition perspective
- Individualizion thesis in 6.9 is sociological theory
- Incroprates 2nd demo trans and easterlin
- Theories share elements allow more sociological and adds more factors
- Many satisfied with econ gover and religion marry young and fertility rates are high
- Today a lot of discomfort pretty unhappy with governance lots of things in flux, use this general
perspective to make sense of fertility change
- Widespread disenchantment marriage less desirable and alt incompatible with high fetility
- Each generation comes with things attitudes from young age
- People change attitiudtes,
- War and culture rev cause value changes
- Today what are value changes
- Counterculture, hippie, skeptical of tradiaiton to way of life, rejected regu of authority like
religion and new ideas of sexuality and marriage
- Rise in cohan and rej had genesis in counter culture in 60s end and much of the 70s
- Term gen born after ww2 detachment of instituitions, help with spread communication through
technology spread counter culture and disentachment of of social inst
- In 50s tv only 2 networks and read few outlets very few
- Today peripherlaiiton of techniology frag,entated many options available, and diffusion of
technology and distrust social inst change society and about fertility what do with life and
- Today indiv thoughts of life
- Ideaziaiton shifts of rebels in the 60s, not all soc demo change ascribe to fertility change
- Divorce bbom was product of early gen with marriage
- Many same ideas of econ but sociological framework
- 6.10 caldwell
- Easterlin synthesis - brings major themes from other perspective , role of women autonomy,
role of women autonomy in poorer parts of world
Unifying theory
- Low fertility in industrialized countries, below replpaxement
- Total fertility rates low in wealth countries
- Low fetility trap consequences of it and aware of
- And policy remedies increase immigration and fertility incentive to have more babies in
southern Europe increase natural pop growth
- Uniformities but see distinct patterns, in Europe
- Low and continued in medieran the lowest
- Scandanavian and france lowest,
- What has caused it and what continues it
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