SOC313H1 Lecture Notes - Welfarism, Mandatory Sentencing, Deinstitutionalisation

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25 Apr 2012

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Lecture #3 January 24, 2012
History of Social Control Practices
- practices like ideas change over time
- the history of control practices is not linear, it’s messy
Early History of Penal-Welfarism
- has been dominant since the 1890s to 1970s - the mid 20th century in
- effort to control the disorderly
poor houses and policing as we know it
- up to that point, policing as an organized force on the streets wasn’t around;
crime control wasn’t put in the hands of this separate institution
- police forces, fire departments, night watches, etc. in response to how to deal
with these social issues
- a lot of these plans to help the poor were developed by the well-to-do who
wanted to “fix” people
- it’s this coming together of social control and the welfare system
- penal/welfare nexus
- “Victorian Penalty” vs. “Modern Penalty”
for Victorians, justice or crime control, was about a clearly laid out
hierarchy of punishments to fit the crimes; making the punishment
commensurate with the crime
with modern you see a shift and it starts to recognize the
relationships in social control and recognizing things need to be done
to solve these problems, so penalty became about correction instead
of just punishment
- rehabilitation: making offenders better and trying to re-integrate them into
society by offering education, counselling, parole, community service
- discretion: judges should have a level of discretion when sentencing to take
into account relevant factors (e.g. explanation behind crime, 1st time
offender); but also you could keep people in prison for as long as they need
to be able to be rehabilitated properly
- expert knowledge: starting to get experts in criminology, psychology, social
workers, all being utilized and getting folded into the system; but they have
their own vested interests as well, and want to establish themselves as real
- modernism: modernist undertone with a belief in science, an implicit
humanism; we can make the world a better place through the application of
science and technology
- correctionalist criminology
- two axioms:
social reform and affluence will decrease crime
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