SOC363H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Confounding, Interpersonal Relationship, Ingroups And Outgroups

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Published on 16 Oct 2016
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SOC363 Race, Ethnicity and Immigration- Lecture 5
Race, Ethnicity and Immigration- large concept that is very complex and thus it will
take a long time to discuss
Dealing with the micro cause of a BIG issue
Complex Questions
The intersections of :
o Race (socially constructed)
o Ethnicity ( overlapping with race)
o Immigration (crosscuts both ER)- those who immigrate are from differing
race and ethnicities in comparison to the host country
o If the issues involving these factors seem confusing, it is because they
complex
o Are the US and Canadian realities distinct and unique?
It is a challenge to extract these concepts from one another
Reviewing what we know based on Kessler
Relative Risks of Mental Disorders NCS-R
Race/ethnicity
Any
anxiety
Any mood
Any
impulse-
control
Any
substance
Any
disorder
Non-Hispanic
White
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
Non-Hispanic
Black
0.8*
0.6*
0.7
0.6*
0.7*
Hispanic
0.7*
0.8*
0.7
0.9
0.8*
Other
1.2
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.0
Non Hispanic White/Black has to be established as there are some overlap
(interracial marriage)
0.8 and 0.7 each on lower rates for anxiety disorder in comparison to white
Interpretation
The Black-White paradox
A finding with many interpretations
o Artifactual- response effect- hiding from true problems
o Substantive: a remarkable inverse finding. Lower SES, more stressful lives,
more discrimination, lower security, bloacked access to opportunity and yet
they are experiencing fewer problems (why)
At this point in history, almost no one thinks its artifactual
Defining Race Sociologically
o First -- this is sociology: race is treated as a socially constructed category, not
a biological reality.
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o Things perceived as real are real in their consequences (Thomas 1932)
o Listen to Brown et al on Race:
o Definition: a socially constructed status based on observed
phenotypic differences than manifest largely irrelevant underlying
differences in genotype… [on average].
Suggests race is assumed to be viable mainly because there are
ascriptive markers that have social meaning… and social
consequences.- this is the mechanism by which races start
o Inconsistencies between self and other identification, because:
o Changes depending on social, economic, and historical contexts.
o But, a further component:
o Race signifies identity or attachment to a racial group, based on
shared experience.
There are complexities with the definition of race now that race is defined
not only by other but also by self identification
Defining Ethnicity
o The voluntary grouping of individuals according to shared geographic origin
and national heritage
o Overlapping with race: classifications use both to achieve most distinct sets
of groups
Complexities: The problems of borders
o Blacks- could be subdivided into Multigenerational, Caribbean, recent African
and European origins
o Hispanic- Puerto Rican (closer relationship with US), Mexican-
American(migrants recently), Cuban, South American
o (East) Asian- Japanese, Chinese and regional connected, Korean, Vietnamese,
Filipino
o Any cultural, historical, political, religious or migration status differences
could cross-cut and average out differences in more general groupings
Treating all the diversities as X it then generalizes and makes it seem that
everyone is the same when that is in fact not the case
White is not just white- includes what is usually included under ethnicity
and thus a combined approach is necessary
Better Results
o Achieving believable sample sizes is the traditional problem
o Combine results from major surveys:
NCS-R
CPES- The Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, a
dedicated survey of minority mental health in the US
NLAAS- The National Latino and Asian American Survey
NSAL- National Survey of American Life (Blacks)
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NES-ARC: National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related
Conditions
o All since 2000
o Each group sampled in thousands, subgroups of Hispanics and Asians at least
500 each
Want to sample groups (large cohort) in order to receive credible results
Lifetime Prevalence
Depression/Anxiety:
o Same patterns as in NCS-R for race
o American Indian much higher
o Makes the paradox finding more unique
o Sub-groups highly variable
o Note: Caribbean, Cuban and Puerto Ricans are higher than whites in terms of
prevalence
o Mexicans have a low prevalence of depression and they actually have the
lowest rate amongst all the cohorts
o Nativity reflects the healthy immigrant phenomenon
Substance Abuse
o Also same general patterns with exceptions
o American Indian much higher in terms of alcohol abuse ( historical context)
o Blacks are also high alcohol abuse mainly due to the African-american
ethnicity
o Foreign born drink less
Is Canada Different? Yes and No
o Wu et al. (2003), from the NPHS, over 81,000 Canadians: Selected
Racial/Ethnic Differences in depression
o Results for racial differences show lower or equal depression, except mixed
race and aboriginal compared to anglo- background whites
o Mixed race is self identified
Group Differences in Toronto
o Data: Work and Family Issues Study- 888 intact couples
o 4 groups distinguished: Whites, east Asians, blacks and south Asians
Results
o Differences with native-born Whites: usually fewer problems
o The non-white cohorts are experiencing less problems generally in
comparison to whites
o When age and racioethnic background considered- the only people with
higher rates in comparison to whites is young south Asian males ( stress to
try to create a life for themselves due to the social pressures of family and
friends and society however this is not just applicable to south Asian
young men… there must be an underlying cause…) – perhaps more family
child conflict ( more distance between them)
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